Microbial Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microbial Genetics Deck (33):
1

What is the building block, nucleotide, composed of?

-Nitrogenous base
-Five carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
-Three phosphate groups

2

Deoxyribose is in ___ and Ribose is in ____.

DNA, RNA

3

What are the five components of nucleic acids?

Purine
Pyrimidines
Sugars
Nucleoside
Nucleotide

4

True/False. Purines could be adenine or guanine and consist of two joined carbon rings with 5 and 6 members.

True.

5

What are the components of Pyrimidines?

Cytosine
Thymine
Uracil

6

A ____ has a phosphate added on the 5' position and _____ has a sugar bound to a purine or pyrimidine base.

Nucleotide, Nucleoside

7

How many carbon rings make up pyrimidines?

six

8

Ture/False. The sugar of a nucleic acid is connected to the nitrogenous base via position 5.

False. Its connected via position 1

9

What connects the nitrogenous base of a nucleic acid to position 1 of the sugar?

Glycosidic bond from N1 of pyrimidine and N9 of purine

10

True/False. A always matches with T in 2 hydrogen bands and G always matches with C in 3 hydrogen bands.

True.

11

From which end is a sequence read from start to finish?

5' to 3' end

12

What does the coding or sense strand have the same sequence as?

mRNA

13

The template or antisense strand directs the synthesis of mRNA via ____.

Complementary base pairing

14

What is the first step of DNA replication?

The helicases unwind the parental double helix.

15

True/False. The leading strand is synthesized continuously in the 5' to 3' direction by DNA polymerase.

True

16

How is the lagging strand of DNA replication synthesized?

Synthesized discontiuously

17

What makes up the Okazaki fragment?

Primase synthesizes a short RNA primer which is extended by DNA polymerase

18

What happens after the RNA primer is replaced by another DNA polymerase during replication?

DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragment to the growing strand

19

What pairs with Adenine in RNA?

Uracil

20

What is the location of both DNA and RNA?

DNA - Nuclear location
RNA - Cytoplasmic location

21

True/False. Prokaryotic cells are polycistronic or monotronic and Eukaryotic cells are polycistronic.

False. Prokaryotic are only polycistronic and Eukaryotic are polycistronic or monotronic.

22

Single RNA polymerase is a characteristic of _____ cells and RNA polymerase I, II, and III is a characteristic of _____ cells.

Prokaryotic cells, Eukaryotic cells

23

There are ___ nucleotides and ___ amino acids in each codon.

4 nucleotides and 20 amino acids

24

What changes the sequence of DNA?

Mutations

25

Can any base pair of DNA be mutated?

Yes

26

How do induced mutation mutagens act directly?

By modifying a particular base or being incorporated into the nucleic acid

27

What are silent mutations?

Mutations without apparent effect: there can be a base change in DNA without a change in amino acids or there can be a change in amino acids but no function change for protein

28

What occurs in Missense mutation?

There is a change in codon, amino acid and protein function

29

___ is a change in a coding codon to a termination codon, resulting in premature termination.

Nonsense mutation

30

Frameshift mutation

Inserting or deleting number of base pairs other than a multiple of 3

31

What is transformation?

Acquisition of new genetic markers by incorporation of added DNA

32

What is the "mating" between two bacteria involving transfer of genetic material?

Conjunction

33

_____ is the transfer of bacterial gene from one to another by a phage and ____ is the movement of a genetic material to a new site in the genome.

Transduction, Transposition