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Behavioral Neuroscience > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (142):
1

Reticular Theory (who and what)

Camillo Golgi, nervous system is a bunch of continuous fibers (no synapses)

2

Santiago Ramon y Cajal

The Neuron Doctrine. Disproved reticular theory, found synapses

3

Input Zone

Dendrites, cell body in Multipolar and bipolar neurons. Receive info

4

Integration Zone

Axon hillock, where action potentials arise (decision to make neural signal is made)

5

Conduction Zone

Info transmitted through axon. In Unipolar neuron, the cell body is here

6

Output Zone

Axon terminals, transfer of info to other cells

7

Afferent transmission

Input. Sensory info

8

Efferent transmission

Output. Motor

9

Glial cell that provides structural support and nutrients to neurons

Astrocyte

10

Glial cell that myelinates CNS neurons

Oligodendrocyte

11

Glial cell that removes debris from injured or dead cells

Microglia

12

Glial cell that myelinates PNS neurons

Schwann cell

13

Gray matter

Cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons. Processing

14

White Matter

Myelinated axons. Info transport

15

Corpus callosum

White matter connecting hemispheres for communication

16

Group of neurons in cns

Nucleus

17

Group of neurons in pns

Ganglion

18

Region involved in working memory, thinking, executive control, behavioral inhibition

Frontal lobe

19

Region involved in Visuospatial processing and somatosensory processing

Parietal lobe

20

Region of parietal lobe involved in somatosensory processing

Postcentral gyrus

21

Region of frontal lobe involved in motor control

Precentral gyrus

22

Cerebellum

A LOT of neurons. Motor control

23

Region involved in auditory and visual processing, along with memory

Temporal lobe, hippocampus is the memory portion

24

Hormones and homeostasis region

Hypothalamus and Pituitary

25

Sensory relay region. Receives instructions from cortex to ctrl which sensory info is transmitted

Thalamus

26

Caudal to thalamus, small region involved in vision

Superior colliculi

27

Caudal to thalamus, small region involved in audition

Inferior colliculi

28

VERY Multipolar neuron for a lot of communication and excitability

Pyramidal neuron

29

Brain system that filters bad material out and acts as a medium for exchange between blood vessels and brain tissue. 3 openings let CSF cover surface of brain and spinal cord. Also shock absorber

Ventricular system. Lateral-3rd-4th. Lateral ventricle touches all four lobes

30

Difference between tracts and nerves

Tracts are inside brain. As soon as neuron enters brain it becomes a tract

31

Hogan twins are joined at which brain structure

Thalamus. They can experience each others sensory experiences, emotions, and thoughts

32

Brain system critical for emotion and learning

Limbic system HIPPOCAMPUS, AMYGDALA IS BIG PART

33

What was removed from patient HM? Same brain structure that dies first during suffocation (ten second tom)

Hippocampus

34

Limbic system component involved in fear emotion and aggression

Amygdala

35

What is lesioned in patient sm that causes her not to have a sense of fear or social norms

Amygdala

36

Brain system involved in motor control- gray matter

Basal ganglia

37

Create and release dopamine- basal ganglia- parkinsons

Substantia nigra

38

Cranial nerve I and function

Olfactory- smell

39

Cranial nerve Ii and function

optic vision

40

Cranial nerve III

oculomotor keep eyelids from droop

41

Cranial nerve IV and function

Trochlear allow eyes to cross

42

Cranial nerve v and function

Trigeminal jaw control and facial teeth and sinus sensory info

43

Cranial nerve VI and function

Abducens lateral movement of eyes

44

Cranial nerve VII and function

Facial 2/3 of taste and makes emotional faces

45

Cranial nerve VIII and function

Vestibulocochlear hearing

46

Cranial nerve IX and function

Glossopharyngeal swallowing 1/3 of taste

47

Cranial nerve X and function

Vagus slows heart beat and is in charge of sensory motor ctrl of internal organs

48

Cranial nerve XI and function

Spinal Accessory shrug

49

Cranial nerve XII and function

Hypoglossal tongue muscles help in swallowing

50

Type of viewing technique that outlines all cell bodies because the dyes are attracted to RNA

Nissl stain

51

Anterograde labeling

Uses radioactive molecules taken up by the cell body and then transported to the axon terminals

52

Retrograde labeling

uses horseradish peroxidase HRP which is taken up in the axon terminals. Backtracks flow of info

53

Diffusion tensor imaging DTI

measures water diffusion patterns to determine white matter structure

54

Phrenology

BAD measures bumps in skull. Bigger bumps in people show more brain in that area. People good at language have big bump in a certain part of the skull

55

Brocas area

Left frontal lobe. Area for speech production

56

Stereotaxic surgery

Enables researchers to create precise lesions guided by 3D adjustable arms and stereotaxic brain atlas

57

TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION tms

Magnetic fields temporarily disrupt brain activity in specific region and observe effects

58

Positron emission tomography PET

uses radioactive chemicals to determine brain activity in certain areas when person is exposed to stimulus

59

Functional MRI fMRI

Measures blood oxygenation over time as an index of brain activity. Good for instant studies

60

Electroencephalography

Good for over time studies

61

Neurophysiology

Measures electrical activity of individual cells or groups of cells in a specific brain region

62

Somatic nervous system

Motor control and feeling

63

Autonomic nervous system- sympathetic

Fight or flight. Norepinephrine

64

Autonomic nervous system parasympathetic

Rest and destress acetylcholine

65

Why use squid axon?

Can see with naked eye. Invertebrate neurons are not myelinated so axons must be larger to send fast potentials. Diameter is important

66

How fast are action potentials

Less than 1000tthh ooh a second

67

Is the inside of the axon more negative or positive

Negative

68

Key element for maintaining resting membrane potential: ions spread out down concentration gradient

Diffusion

69

Key element for maintaining resting membrane potential: opposite polarities attract, negative charge pulls in pos charge

Electrostatic force

70

Key element for maintaining resting membrane potential: cell chooses what can come in

Selective membrane permeability

71

Key element for maintaining resting membrane potential: 2 in, 3 out

Na+-K+ pump

72

4 types of ion channels important for action potential generation

Na-K pump Open K+ channels Voltage-gated Na+ channels voltage gated K+ channels

73

Relative Refractory period

CAused By Hyperpolarization Resulting from Potassium leaving axon. actionPotential can be produced with additional depolarization

74

ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD

Caused By closure of sodium channels. Action potentials can not be produced during this period

75

RATE Coding

higher depolarization only means More action potentials, NOT Stronger action potentials

76

What is the refractory period for

Stops potential from going backward

77

Tetrodotoxin

blocks voltage gated Na+ channels So action potentials can't be sent causing paralysis

78

Scorpions give Na+ channel agonists so....

Causes a lot of action potentials & seizures

79

Tetanus

Prevents Sodium channel inactivation

80

Otto Loewi frog heart experiment proves

CHEMICAL SYNAPSE

81

What does curare and Bungarotoxin do to receptors

Binds to Ach receptor Site as an antagonist. No response, paralyze,

82

Event Related potentials

Patient exposed to stimulus (word or Something ) repeatedly and *takes average brainwaves from all runs

83

optogenetics

some ion channels respond to light stimulus a0 try to infect people with it for treatment

84

ACh in CNS function

Learning and memory

85

ACh in PNS function

Motor ctrl. Muscular action potentials cause contraction

86

ACh related neurocognitive disease

Alzheimer's

87

Ionotropic ACh receptor (excitatory or inhibitory)

Nicotinic, excitatory

88

Metabotropic ACh receptor (excitatory or inhibitory)

Muscarinic, both

89

Major CNS acetylcholine route for learning and memory

Medial septal nucleus to fornix to HIPPOCAMPUS

90

Major ach route in brain for motor ctrl

Nucleus on brainstem to cerebellum

91

Norepinephrine role in CNS.

Attention mood arousal

92

Norepinephrine receptors metabotropic or ionotropic

Metabotropic

93

Serotonin function

Modulates mood, anxiety, sleep, sexual behavior

94

SSRI

antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

95

Ach quaternary amine, monoamine, or amino acid

Quaternary amine

96

Dopamine quaternary amine, monoamine, or amino acid

Monoamine

97

Norepinephrine quaternary amine, monoamine, or amino acid

Monoamine

98

Serotonin and melatonin quaternary amine, monoamine, or amino acid

Monoamine

99

GABA and glutamate quaternary amine, monoamine, or amino acid

Amino acid

100

Mesostriatal pathway

Motor ctrl. Dopamine from substantia nigra to caudate and putamen (BASAL GANGLIA)

101

Mesolimbocortical pathway

Dopamine from ventral tegmental area to nucleus accumbens. REWARD AND REINFORCEMENT. LIMBIC SYSTEM.

102

What activities can stimulate reward system in mesolimbocortical pathway

Drugs of abuse, sex, shopping, games, exercise, gambling

103

Antipsychotics-Typical neuroleptics

Schiz treatment. Only targeted positive symptoms ie hallucinations

104

Antipsychotics- Atypical neuroleptics

Schizophrenia treatment targets both positive symptoms (hallucinations) and negative symptoms (social withdrawal)

105

Anxiolytics

GABA receptor agonists

106

What do amphetamine and cocaine have in common

Both stimulants, both block reuptake of excitatory neurotransmitters

107

Amphetamine Stimulates the release and blocks the reuptake of

Dopamine and norepinephrine

108

Nicotine is an agonist of what neurotransmitter

ACh, addictive properties come from activation in ventral tegmental area (reward system in mesolimbocortical pathway). Very potent- 1 dig can cover 80% of receptors

109

What type of ligand is caffeine and what does it effect

Competitive antagonist of adenosine autoreceptors that inhibit the release of dopamine and the epinephrines

110

Naloxone is an inverse agonist of

Opioids. Can counter overdose and is used to treat addiction

111

What do Endocannabinoids do that goes against the nature of an axon

Act as retrograde messengers that may modulate presynaptic neurotransmitter release

112

Cannabinoids. CB1 agonist impairs

Learning

113

LSD affects what neurotransmitter

Serotonin, agonist of serotonin receptor 5HT2A which is found in the visual cortex (inducing hallucinations)

114

Alcohol activates what receptors

GABAa, producing inhibition. Also stimulates dopamine pathways (buzz)

115

How does alcohol affect neural degradation

Increases it by poor diet- thiamine deficiency- already have enough calories from booze

116

Metabolic tolerance

Metabolic organs become more efficient at eliminating drug before it has effect

117

Functional tolerance

Target structures of drugs become less sensitive to drug. Up and down regulation

118

Cross tolerance

Use of a drug leads to tolerance of similar drugs as well

119

Moral model of addicition

Addict has lack of self ctrl

120

Disease model of addiction

Addict requires medical treatment. Inherited

121

Physical dependence model of addiction

People use drugs to avoid withdrawal

122

Positive reward model of addiction

Drugs super stimulate reward circuitry

123

Pheromone vs allomone

Pheromone is communication between members of same species through chemicals, allomone is between other species

124

Vasopressin

From posterior pituitary, promotes water retention by inhibiting urination, also promotes monogamous mating in prairie voles

125

Membranous hormone receptors interact with what types of hormones

Amine and protein. Amines can also attach to transporters to bring the amine into cell

126

What hormones can easily diffuse across cell membrane and enter nucleus

Steroid (cholesterol derivatives)

127

Pineal gland hormone function

Reproductive maturation and body rhythms

128

Anterior pituitary hormone functions

Growth. Targets thyroid, adrenal cortex, and gonads for hormone secretion

129

Thyroid function

Growth and development, metabolic rate

130

Posterior pituitary hormone functions

Water balance, salt balance, milk letdown

131

Adrenal cortex function

Salt (Aldosterone) and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammatory reactions

132

Adrenal medulla function

Emotional arousal. Receives direct neural input, making FAST fight or flight response

133

Pancreas function (islets of Langerhans)

Sugar metabolism

134

Posterior pituitary made of what tissue

Neural, does not produce its own hormones. Just a route to capillaries from hypothalamus

135

Anterior pituitary made of what tissue

Glandular, makes own hormones triggered by hypothalamus hormones through capillaries

136

Releasing hormones

Produced in hypothalamus, control release of tropic hormones in anterior pituitary

137

Tropic hormones

Produced in anterior pituitary, affect secretion of other endocrine glands

138

Psychosocial dwarfism

Stress reduces production of growth hormone, can be reversed when stress is alleviated

139

Alpha cells of islets of Langerhans

Emit Glucagon. Liver converts glycogen into glucose and releases it into bloodstream. Increases blood sugar

140

Beta cells of islets of Langerhans

Emit insulin. Liver stores glucose as glycogen, other cells increase consumption of glucose . Decreases blood sugar

141

Type I diabetes

Immune system destroys Beta cells, no insulin produced

142

Type II diabetes

Reduced responsivity to insulin in cells that require insulin for glucose absorption