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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (94)
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1

Biopsychosocial model of illness and advantages/disadvantages

The view that biological, psychological, and social factors are all involved in any given state of health or illness.
Arose from Freud's work on conversion hysteria (unconscious conflicts lead to physical disturbances)
Useful clinically
A: Macrolevel and Microlevel (broader scope), emphasizes both health and illness, more integrative

2

Biomedical model of illness and advantages/disadvantages

The viewpoint that illness can be explained on the basis of aberrant somatic processes and that psychological and social processes are largely independent of the disease process; the dominant model in medical practice until recently
A: Simple, Direct, has prompted much medical progress
D: Reduces illness to micro-level processes like disordered cells and chemical imbalances (Reductionist model), fails to recognize social and psychological influences, emphasizes illness over health, cannot explain some puzzles

3

Health

The absence of disease or infirmity, coupled with a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being; health psychologists recognize health to be a state that is actively achieved rather than the mere absence of illness.

4

Illness

Substandard state of health

5

Focuses of health psychology

Health promotion and maintenance
Prevention and treatment of illness
Etiology and correlates of health, illness, and dysfunction
Improve the health care system and the formulation of health policy

6

Patient-centered medical home

Allows for collaboration among providers from a variety of specialties to care for the overall health and wellness of patients rather than simply addressing biological or physical concerns alone

7

Etiology

Origins or causes of illness

8

Psychosomatic medicine

A field within psychiatry, related to health psychology, that developed in the early 1900s to study and treat particular diseases believed to be caused by emotional conflicts, such as ulcers, hypertension, and asthma. The term is now used more broadly to mean an approach to health-related problems and diseases that examines psychological as well as somatic origins.

9

Acute disorders

Illnesses or other medical problems that occur over a short time, that are usually the result of an infectious process, and that are reversible.
Tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, measles
Declining prevalence

10

Chronic illnesses

Illnesses that are long lasting and usually irreversible.
Increasing prevalence
Heart disease, cancer, respiratory diseases

11

Chronic illnesses

Illnesses that are long lasting and usually irreversible.
Increasing prevalence
Heart disease, cancer, respiratory diseases
Often caused by psychological and social factors and cause problems socially and psychologically in return; have helped spawn field of health psych.

12

Theory

A set of interrelated analytic statements that explain a set of phenomena, such as why people practice poor health behaviors.

13

Experiment

A type of research in which a researcher randomly assigns people to two or more conditions, varies the treatments that people in each condition are given, and then measures the effect on some response.

14

Randomized clinical trials

A target treatment is compared against the existing standard of care or a placebo control, that is, an organically inert treatment.

15

Evidence-based medicine

Medical interventions go through rigorous testing and evaluation of their benefits before they become the standard of care, usually through randomized clinical trials.

16

Gold standard of health psychology research

Experiments and randomized clinical trials

17

Gold standard of health psychology research

Experiments and randomized clinical trials

18

Correlational research

Measuring two variables and determining whether they are associated with each other. Studies relating smoking to lung cancer are correlational, for example.
Disadvantage: hard to determineq direction of causality
Advantage: More adaptable than experiments

19

Prospective research

Looks forward in time to see how a group of people change, or how a relationship between two variables changes over time
Can be experimental or correlational

20

Longitudinal research

Type of prospective study in which the same people are observed at multiple points in time

21

Retrospective designs

Look backward in time in an attempt to reconstruct the conditions that led to a current situation

22

Epidemiology

The study of the frequency, distribution, and causes of infectious and noninfectious disease in a population

23

Morbidity

The number of cases of a disease that exist at a given point in time; it may be expressed as the number of new cases (incidence) or as the total number of existing cases (prevalence).

24

Mortality

The number of deaths due to particular causes.

25

Meta-analysis

Combines results from different studies to identify how strong the evidence is for
particular research findings

26

10 Major Systems of Body

Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Respiratory
Digestive
Renal
Reproductive
Immune
*Muscular
*Skeletal

27

Nervous System

The system of the body responsible for the transmission of information from the brain to the rest of the body and from the rest of the body to the brain; it is composed of the central nervous system (the brain and the spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (which consists of the remainder of the nerves in the body)
Peripheral is somatic and autonomic

28

Sympathetic NS

Mobilizes the body for action.

29

Parasympathetic NS

Responsible for vegetative functions, the conservation of energy, and the damping down of the effects of the sympathetic nervous system.

30

Medulla

Regulates HR, BP, and Respiration