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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (31)
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1

Differentiate pollakiuria from polyuria

Pollakiruia= increased frequency

Polyuria= increased volume

2

3 ways PD can develop?

1) free water loss secondary to PU

2) reduced secretion of ADH

3) abnormal function of thirst center (brain)

3

3 ways PU can develop?

1) water diuresis

2) solute diuresis

3) abnormal renal concentrating gradient

4

Phase 1 of the modified water deprivation test serves to?

rule out/reduce medullary washout

5

Phase 3 of the modified water deprivation test serves to differentiate between which two disease?

Central diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

*exogenous ADH given (if urine concentrates= central)

6

Name 6 common causes of PU/PD in dogs

DM
HAC
renal dz
pyometra
hypercalemia
pyelonephritis

7

3 common causes of PU/PD in cats

renal dz
DM
hyperthyroidism

8

Which portion of the glomerulus is responsible for:
1) size selectivity
2) charge selectivity

1) glomerular basement membrane

2) podocytes

9

Hallmark finding of glomerular disease

Proteinuria

10

Which types of diseases can lead to buildup of IgA?

Gastrointestinal--excess IgA production

Hepatic--decreased IgA clearance

11

How do Shar-Pei differ with respect to amyloidosis

they get deposits in renal medulla instead of glomeruli

12

Most common form of amyloidosis & it's pathogenesis?

Reactive

chronic inflammatory condition leads to release of serum amyloid A (SAA) which is main protein involved in making amyloid

13

3 phases of Shar-Pei Fever (familial amyloidosis)

pre-deposition
rapid deposition
plateau

14

Why can hypercoaguability develop with glomerular disease?

Can lose antithrombin through glomerulus (it's smaller than albumin)

15

What 4 findings are characteristic for nephrotic syndrome?

Hypoalbuminemia
Hypercholesterolemia
Proteinuria
Edema

16

The urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC) corrects for?

Urine specific gravity

17

Two forms of pathologic renal proteinuria

glomerular

tubular

18

T/F: kidney biopsy is a first line diagnostic tool for glomerular disease

FALSE--only biopsy if an underlying cause cannot be found

19

When is the UPC abnormal in:
1) dogs
2) cats

1) when >0.5

2) when >0.4

20

4 goals of glomerular disease treatment

1) reduce proteinuria
2) control hypercoagulability
3) normalize BP
4) reduce tubular inflammation

21

Describe the use of ACE inhibitors in tx of glomerular disease

they prevent angiotensin-II mediated constriction of EFFERENT arteriol--reduces glomerular pressure

22

Which treatment should not be implemented before a biopsy is performed?

long-term steroid therapy

23

2 mechanisms by which nephrotoxins cause damage

1) renal ischemia
2) direct nephrotoxicity

24

Which 2 prostaglandins are blocked by NSAIDs & are important renal vasodilators

PGE2 & PGI2

25

Most animals present in which stage of EG toxicity?

Stage 3 (acute intrinsic renal failure)

26

3 end products of EG metabolism?

Hippuric acid
Oxalate
CO2

27

Name the top 3 most toxic metabolites of EG (from most to least toxic)

1) Glyoxylic acid

2) glycoaldehyde

3) glycolic acid

28

What is the general therapy goal when treating an animal with 4-MP or ethanol for EG toxicity?

reduce the metabolism of EG to its toxic metabolites

29

For which enzyme does ethanol compete to prevent EG metabolism?

Alcohol dehydrogenase

30

Grape/raisin toxicity primarily effects which part of the nephron?

proximal tubules

31

Primary electrolyte imbalance seen with grape/raisin toxicity?

Hypercalcemia