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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (39)
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1

Majority of the urinary tract is lined by _____ epithelium except the _____ which is lined by?

transitional

except distal urethra--stratified squamous

2

What two structures does the urogenital sinus give rise to?

urethra
urinary bladder

3

Most common bladder defect affecting foals?

patent urachus

4

Cows with hypocalcemia (milk fever) may develop which anatomic variation of the bladder?

eversion

5

How does the composition btwn hard and soft uroliths differ?

Hard--mainly inorganic salt

Soft--high organic matrix

6

Though the most common location for blockage with stones varies btwn spp. ALL spp. can become obstructed at which location?

ischial arch

7

Struvite stones commonly form when there's bladder infection with which type of bacteria?

Urease +

**Splits urea into ammonia and bicarb--> raising urine pH

8

Most common urolith of cattle on PASTURE

Silica uroliths

9

Oxalate uroliths are assoc. with elevations of ______ in urine??

Calcium

10

What are the 3 purine uroliths

Xanthine
Uric Acid
urate

11

Dalmatians are assoc. with formation of which types of stones? Why?

Uric acid & urate

*they have defective uptake of uric acid into hepatocytes so excess is secreted in urine

12

In addition to Dalmatians, dog affected with which condition will form urate or uric acid stones?

patients with PSS

13

Formation of xanthine calculi is assoc. with a defect or inhibition of which enzyme?

Xanthine oxidase

14

Dalmatians being treated with ______ may be predisposed to formation of xanthine stones

Allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor)

15

Newfoundlands:
1) what stone type are they predisposed to forming
2) why? (pathogenesis)

Cystine crystals

*have a defect in proximal tubules that prevents adequate re-absorption of AA--> cystine forms stones due to insolubility

16

Which type of stones change appearance upon exposure to light?

Cystine

yellow --> brown --> green

17

Enzootic hematuria in cattle is assoc. with ingestion of?

bracken fern

18

Most common neoplasm of urinary tract?

Urothelial cell carcinoma (TCC)

19

The most common form of TCC usually affecting the bladder

papillary, infiltrating

20

Young St. Bernards are predisposed to development of which type of bladder neoplasm?

Botyroid Rhabdomyosarcoma

21

Name the 3 types of innervation going to the bladder and which specific nerve is responsible for each.

1) sympathetic (alpha and beta) supplied by hypogastric nerve

2) parasympathic (muscarinic) supplied by pelvic nerve

3) somatic (voluntary) supplied by pudendal nerve

22

What are the two types of complicated LUT infections?

1) persistence & relapse--infection with same organism

2) reinfection--infection with a new organism

23

Which uroliths are radiolucent?

lucent= cystine, urate, xnathine

24

Which stones are responsive to dissolution diets?

Struvite, cystine, xanthine (urate)

25

Most common antimuscarinic used to treat incontinence? How do antimuscarinics work to treat this disease?

Imipramine

they decrease detrusor activity and increase urethral tone

26

Which type of stone commonly likes to form in the kidney

Ca oxalate

27

Describe the MOA of
1) potassium citrate
2) vitamin B6

as they related to treatment of Ca oxalate stones

1) alkalinizes urine

2) inhibits crystal formation

28

When performing nephrostomy, it is important to suture the external tubing to?

the body wall

**NOT SKIN

29

Surgery on the ureter typically involves a ______ incision (direction) that is closed _______

longitudinal incision

close transversely--maintains better luminal dimeter

30

The holding layer for the bladder?

submucosa

31

Which urinary surgical procedure is typically left to heal by second intention

urethrotomy (dogs)

32

The most important factor for a successful urethrostomy is the creation of a?

perfect mucocutaneous junction

33

The causative organism for
1) necrotic posthitis
2) ulcerative posthitis

1) F. necrophorum

2) C. renale

34

How will bladder appearance vary between eversion and prolapse (food animals)

With prolapse, it's coming through a tear in the vagina--> will see SEROSAL surface

with eversion, it's flipping inside out through the urethra--> will see MUCOSAL surface

35

T/F: if you can palpate the ureter rectally in the horse, it's definitely enlarged

True

36

Most common type of calculi in horses

Ca carbonate

37

Most common location for bladder rupture in horses? Most common age range affected?

Dorsal wall

Foals!

38

Two drugs that can be used for bladder paralysis in horses and their MOAs

1) Bethanechol--Cholinergic (increases detrusor activity, increases intravesicular pressure, relaxes bladder neck)

2) Phenoxybenzamine--alpha antagonist (blocker) (decreases urethral sphincter tone)

39

Hematuria at the END of urination is most commonly assoc. with what problem? (horses)

urethral rent (tear)