Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (39)
Majority of the urinary tract is lined by _____ epithelium except the _____ which is lined by?
except distal urethra--stratified squamous
What two structures does the urogenital sinus give rise to?
Most common bladder defect affecting foals?
Cows with hypocalcemia (milk fever) may develop which anatomic variation of the bladder?
How does the composition btwn hard and soft uroliths differ?
Hard--mainly inorganic salt
Soft--high organic matrix
Though the most common location for blockage with stones varies btwn spp. ALL spp. can become obstructed at which location?
Struvite stones commonly form when there's bladder infection with which type of bacteria?
**Splits urea into ammonia and bicarb--> raising urine pH
Most common urolith of cattle on PASTURE
Oxalate uroliths are assoc. with elevations of ______ in urine??
What are the 3 purine uroliths
Dalmatians are assoc. with formation of which types of stones? Why?
Uric acid & urate
*they have defective uptake of uric acid into hepatocytes so excess is secreted in urine
In addition to Dalmatians, dog affected with which condition will form urate or uric acid stones?
patients with PSS
Formation of xanthine calculi is assoc. with a defect or inhibition of which enzyme?
Dalmatians being treated with ______ may be predisposed to formation of xanthine stones
Allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor)
1) what stone type are they predisposed to forming
2) why? (pathogenesis)
*have a defect in proximal tubules that prevents adequate re-absorption of AA--> cystine forms stones due to insolubility
Which type of stones change appearance upon exposure to light?
yellow --> brown --> green
Enzootic hematuria in cattle is assoc. with ingestion of?
Most common neoplasm of urinary tract?
Urothelial cell carcinoma (TCC)
The most common form of TCC usually affecting the bladder
Young St. Bernards are predisposed to development of which type of bladder neoplasm?
Name the 3 types of innervation going to the bladder and which specific nerve is responsible for each.
1) sympathetic (alpha and beta) supplied by hypogastric nerve
2) parasympathic (muscarinic) supplied by pelvic nerve
3) somatic (voluntary) supplied by pudendal nerve
What are the two types of complicated LUT infections?
1) persistence & relapse--infection with same organism
2) reinfection--infection with a new organism
Which uroliths are radiolucent?
lucent= cystine, urate, xnathine
Which stones are responsive to dissolution diets?
Struvite, cystine, xanthine (urate)
Most common antimuscarinic used to treat incontinence? How do antimuscarinics work to treat this disease?
they decrease detrusor activity and increase urethral tone
Which type of stone commonly likes to form in the kidney
Describe the MOA of
1) potassium citrate
2) vitamin B6
as they related to treatment of Ca oxalate stones
1) alkalinizes urine
2) inhibits crystal formation
When performing nephrostomy, it is important to suture the external tubing to?
the body wall
Surgery on the ureter typically involves a ______ incision (direction) that is closed _______
close transversely--maintains better luminal dimeter
The holding layer for the bladder?
Which urinary surgical procedure is typically left to heal by second intention
The most important factor for a successful urethrostomy is the creation of a?
perfect mucocutaneous junction
The causative organism for
1) necrotic posthitis
2) ulcerative posthitis
1) F. necrophorum
2) C. renale
How will bladder appearance vary between eversion and prolapse (food animals)
With prolapse, it's coming through a tear in the vagina--> will see SEROSAL surface
with eversion, it's flipping inside out through the urethra--> will see MUCOSAL surface
T/F: if you can palpate the ureter rectally in the horse, it's definitely enlarged
Most common type of calculi in horses
Most common location for bladder rupture in horses? Most common age range affected?
Two drugs that can be used for bladder paralysis in horses and their MOAs
1) Bethanechol--Cholinergic (increases detrusor activity, increases intravesicular pressure, relaxes bladder neck)
2) Phenoxybenzamine--alpha antagonist (blocker) (decreases urethral sphincter tone)