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1

sister groups

Sister taxa are any taxa derived from a common ancestral node.

2

outgroup taxon

a taxon outside the group of interest alll members of the group are more costly related to each other than they are to the out group

3

synapomorphy 

shared derrived trait 

4

apomorphy

derived trait

5

monophyletic clade

includes ancestor and all descendents 

6

paraphyletic clade 

includes ancestors and some but not all descendents 

7

what is the basic unit of life? 

a cell with 

  • Dna genetic code ordered structures regulation of internal conditions 
  • growth and developent energy use respodus to stimuli 
  • repoduce ance evolve

8

archaea are more closely related to eukarya becasue ? 

share genes and metabolic pathways 

enzymes used for dna translation and transcription 

 

9

carl woese

using rna he found that rRNA of archaea and ukarya are more similar to eachother 

10

true or false 

prokaryotes are a monopheletic clade 

false they are parapheletic 

11

prokaryotic 

lack nuclear membrane 

12

how many difernt prokaryotes are in your stomach lining

128 species in your stomach lining 

13

how many difernt prokaryotes are in your small intestine

400

14

how many difernt prokaryotes are in your large intistine

 

1000

15

how many difernt prokaryotes are in you mouth 

700

16

Bacteria and Archaea differ in  

-structure

-physiology

-biochemistry 

17

bioremediation 

some bacteria and archaea are used to clean pollution 

18

METAGENOMICS 

Metagenomics, or environmental sequencing, is a new technique for

documenting the presence of these organisms

It allows researchers to identify species and biochemical pathways by comparing DNA sequences with those of known genes 

19

‘Prokaryote’: basic biology 

  • cell wall covered by a sticky capsule
  • bacteria: peptidoglycan in cell wall
  • archaea: unique phospholipid in plasma membrane 

20

peptidoglycan 

  • single polymer that forms a net-like mesh around the cell.
  • Antibiotics interfere with it’s synthesis 

21

Proteobacteria

  • origin of mitochondrial DNA 
  • Proteobacteria taxa to know:
    • - Escherichia coli (Proteobacteria) -
    • Salmonella (Proteobacteria)
    • - Vibrio (Proteobacteria)
    • - H. pylori (Proteobacteria) 

22

stomach ulcers caused by what bacteria? 

heliocobacter pylori

23

Vibrio 

is a pathogenic bacteria - causes an

infection, typically when people who consume undercooked seafood or swim in contaminated ocean with open wound

also involved in a symbiotic relationship with some fish - Vibrio attaches to food particles in fish guts, is expelled >> bioluminescent, and attracts more to the colony 

24

cyanobacteria 

are a form of photosynthetic bacterium common in both marine and freshwater environments deeply pigmented often responsible for blooms in polluted waters both colonial and solitary forms are common some filamentous forms habe cells specialized for ntrogen fixation 

 

  • pond scum is really several species of cyanobacteria
  • can be very toxic to humans 
  • oxygen revolution 

25

The Oxygen revolution 

aka ‘blue green bacteria’, formally known as ‘blue green algae’ 

  • Oxygen on Earth !!
  • No free molecular oxygen for the first 2.3 billion years of Earth’s history
  • PHOTOSYTNThETIC! cyanobacteria perform oxygen-producing photosynthesis
  • switch from anaerobic respiration to aerobic respiration for Earths organisms
  • changed Earth’s atmosphere - to a high oxygen concentration 
  • Can convert Nitrogen in the atmosphere into an organic form (ammonia or nitrate)
    • nucleic acids (DNA)
    • proteins
  • Many eukaryotes use the ammonia form of nitrogen 

26

Spirochetes 

  • long coiled shaped cells that stain gram negative
  • common in acuatic environments
  • -axial filaments
    (modified flagella) used in corkscrew-like motion of spirochetes 

  • some spirochetes such as treponema pallidum (sypilis) and borrelia burdorferi (lyme disease) are significant human pathogens 
  • T ppallidium : causes syphilis
  • Borrelia: causes lyme deases 

27

T. pallidium 

Sporochete that causes syphalis 

28

Borrelia

Spirochete that causes lyme disease 

29

gram-positive bacteria 

B. anthracis (anthrax) 

Staphylococcus aureus

-  pimples

-  toxic shock syndrom

-  pneumonia

-  meningitis 

-  sepsis 

30

thermophiles 

persist in harsh environments.. possible that this is how early prokaryotes survived and evolved on Earth