List the Disadvantages of containerization of cargo: (6)
1. Container mx and distribution 2. Containers not loaded for sea shipment 3. Container weight and space 4. Not suitable for all types of cargo 5. Not enough ventilation 6. Require specialized ports and equipment
A document used by carrier to note delivery of cargo and any exceptions that cargo may have.
What does LO-LO stand for?
Lift On/Lift Off
The department of a liner company that decides the freight rate, surchages, and issues the Freight Invoice.
A Bill of Lading in which no endorsement is necessary and in which the consignee has paid for shipment.
Straight Bill of Lading
Defn: The weight that must be loaded to increase (or discharge to decrease) the mean draft by one inch.
Tons per inch immersion (TPI)
Formula: # of Tons in a given space
T = [ V x (1 - L) ] / SF
Name (3) common components of a container lash system:
1. Tensioner 2. Rods 3. Turnbuckles
What does LASH standfor?
Lighter Aboard Ship
Defn: The weight of all the cargo, fuel, stores, and supplies carried aboard a vessel; the actual carrying capacity of the vessel
Commodities that are exceptionally dusty and always tend to leave a residue behind them.
A Bill of Lading in which no exceptions are noted on it is said to be ________.
What is the fundamental requirement of protecting cargo?
Segregation of cargo
A "Board Foot" is equal to what dimensions:
12" x 12" x 1"
A cargo that is liquid but stored in containers and has the possibility of leakage. Does NOT refer to bulk liquid cargos
Defn: The actual weight of the volume of a ship, measured in long tons, and equal to the weight of water displaced by the vessel.
List the Advantages of containerization of cargo: (6)
1. Fast turnaround 2. Protection from pilferage and damage 3. Protect from wx 4. Cheaper 5. Consolidation 6. Intermodalism
The party shown on the bill of lading to who the shipment is consigned.
A stress that occurs on containers that occurs when the ship rolls and forces the top of the container out of alignment with the bottom?
Formula: Mean sinkage
= Tons loaded / TPI
A piece of dunnage leading horizontally that is placed to prevent the shifting of cargo and possibility of crushing.
When a ship is completely loaded with cargo so that her deadweight capacity is used the term used is:
"Full and Down"
The document that serves as the contract between the shipper and the carrier.
Bill of Lading
Defn: Assembling large blocks of cargo on one level and in one compartment when able in order to eliminate small segments of cargo throughout the ship.
Removing cargo from a container is usually referred to as?
Formula: Invisible Distance (I) Blind Spot Calc.
Invisible Distance (I) = (Height at Bow (B) x Distance from the Bridge to Bow (D)) / (Ht at Bridge (A) - Ht at Bow (B))
A shipping document that has information about the ship such as space available, height restrictions, length limits, broken stowage, etc; Is a running tally of cargo booked for the ship. Used by the operations department to plan for the stowage of the ship
What are the (5) stowage principles?
1. Protect the ship 2. Protect the cargo 3. Maximize cubic 4. Rapid load/discharge 5. Safety
Defn: Colored marks and shapes that are placed on cargo so that destination can be noted at a glance,
The tipping center is usually within _____ to ______ feet of amidships.
15 - 20 feet