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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (91):
1

How heritable is intelligence?

It is heritable but environment can help.

2

What is evolutionary psychology?

Psychological mechanisms in the past increased our ancestors’ chances of surviving and reproducing

3

What is natural selection?

Better traits become more common.

4

How do evolutionary psychologist explain sex differences in aggression?

Unequal parental investment → greater male reproductive competition

5

What are circadian rhythms?

Biological clock that provides approximate schedule for physical processes

6

What is the suprachiasmatic nucleus?

In hypothalamus, sensitive to changes in light

7

How does light affect the SCN, and how are the pineal gland and melatonin involved in our sleep-wake cycle?

Melatonin- causes sleepiness
Pineal gland secretes melatonin

8

What is the effect of artifical lighting on our melatonin production

Breaks down melatonin

9

What is N-REM 1? Hypnagogic jerk? Hynagogic hallucination?

Silimar to drowsiness. Jerk= twitching
Hallucinations = lucid dreaming

10

REM 2?

True sleep- reductions in heart rate and muscle tension

11

REM 3/4?

Deeply asleep, hard to awaken, disoriented when awakened. Growth hormones released from pituitary

12

What is REM sleep? What happens during REM sleep

Brain waves resemble wakefulness, paradoxical sleep, eyes move, irregular (heart rate, blood pressure, breathing).
DREAMS

13

Paradoxal?

Mind awake while body is asleep

14

Effects of sleep deprivation

Irritability, difficulty concentrating. Reduced immune system.
Lower production of growth hormone.
Impairment of memory formation
Increased risk of depression and obesity.
Selective deprivation stage of 3/4= muscle and join pain

15

Evolutionary theory of sleep

protection- not outside and vulnerable to predators in the dark

16

Restorative theory of sleep

supports growth

17

Information processing theory of sleep

supports cognitive processes (memories, creative thinking)

18

Freud theory of dream

to satisfy our own concussions wishes

19

Information processing theory of dream

for memories

20

Preserving neural pathways theory of dream

brain stimulation

21

Activation synthesis theory of dream

brains internally generated signals

22

What are the primitive reflexes

Unlearned responses that are triggered by a specific form of stimulation

23

How sensitive are newborn's senses

Touch and pain- kangaroo care
Taste- Innate and learned
Smell- Keen sense of smell
Hearing- Develops rapidly after birth
Vision- Least Developed

24

Visual Cliff

Lack of depth perception

25

What was Piaget's approach to cognitive development?

Children understand the world with psychological structures that organize experience. Children make constant mental adaptation to new observations and experiences

26

What is assimilation and accommodation

assimilation= fitting new information into present system of knowledge and beliefs (MAKING SCHEMA)
accommodation- as a result of undeniable new information (CHANGING SCHEMA)

27

Piaget Cognitive Stage 1
(Sensorimotor)

birth to 2 years.
Looking, sucking, touching
Develop object permanence- something continues to exist even when it cannot be seen

28

Piaget Cognitive Stage 2
(Preoperational)

2-7 years
Egocentric- only use own frame of reference
Animalistic thinking- attribute life to animals
Cannot grasp concept of conservation
Conservation- understanding that physical properties do not change when appearance changes

29

Piaget Cognative Stage 3
(Concrete)

7-11 years
Can understand conversation
Can understand transitivity
Transitivity= A>B B>C then A>C

30

Piaget Stage 4
(Cognitive)

11-adulthood
Abstract reasoning
Thinking about future possibilites

31

Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development

Cognitive development results from guidance

32

Zone of proximal development

level at which a child can almost, but not fully, perform a task independently

33

Scaffolding

Teacher adjusts amount of support to child's level of development

34

Henry Halow- soft contact important

Monkey preferred the soft (no food) mother to the wire (food) mother

35

Mary Ainsworth

Adult as secure base from which to explore

36

Attachment Types

Secure- Upset when parents leave, Happy when they return
Avoidant- Little reaction to parents coming and going
Ambiviant- Upset when parents leave and upset when parents come

37

What affects attachment?

infants have innate characteristics that promote attachments

38

Langlois Study

Mothers give more affection and attention to attractive infants

39

Authoritarian Parenting Style

Low warmth, High control
Controlling, demanding, high emphasis on obedience
Very restrictive
RESULTS: Lower grades, lower self-esteem

40

Permissive Parenting Style

High warmth, Low control
Very few rules or restrictions
RESULTS: Easily frustrated, Low self-control

41

Uninvolved Parenting Style

Low warmth, low control
Least effective, most detrimental
RESULTS: Low self-esteem, emotionally detached

42

Authoritative Parenting Style

High warmth, High control
Not overly demanding or hostile
Child-centered
RESULTS: Higher grades, coopertive

43

What is Kohlbergs theory of moral development?

Cognative capabilities determine evolution of moral reasoning

44

Preconventional

4-10
Avoid punishment or gain reward

45

Conventional

10-up
"good-boy" moralitiy
"law and order"

46

Postconventional

Individual principles and conscience

47

Heinz dilemma

He had to choose to steal to save his dying wife

48

Identity vs Confusion

Stable sense of who one is and what one's values are or identity confusion

49

Intimacy vs Isolation

Establish enduring, committed friendships and relationships

50

Generativity vs Stagnation

Generate things that can outlive the self or see life as meaningless

51

Integrity vs Despair

Feel life has consistency, coherence, and purpose or disappointment

52

Assimilation (ethnic identity)

weak feelings of ethnic identity, strong feelings of acculturation

53

Separatist (ethnic identity)

strong ethnic, weak acculturation

54

Marginal (ethnic identity)

weak ethnic, weak acculturation

55

Bicultural (ethnic identity)

strong ethnic, strong acculturation

56

Older adults and death

express less anxiety about death than middle-aged adults

57

Sex vs Gender

Sex- anatomy
Gender- meanings that societies give to sexes

58

Gender socially constructed?

Different cultures have different conceptions about gender
Gender is dynamic, not static
Gender is inextricable from its context

59

Differences vs Similarities

D: Men and women are fundamentally different
S: Men and women are basically alike

60

Communal vs Agentic

Communal: Team player (female)
Agentic: Team leader (male)

61

Hostile vs benevolent sexism

Hostile: traditional women inferior to men
Benevolent: Women seen as objects to be idealized and protected

62

Ambivalent sexism

the oscillation between benevolence and hostile sexism

63

Social learning

societal norms turn genders into place

64

Sensation vs Perception

Sensation: sense organs gather information and transmit to the brain
Perception: Brain selects, organizes, and interprets sensation

65

Transduction

translation of physical energy into electrical signals

66

Bottom-up vs Top-down

Bottom-Up: Raw sensory to brain
Top-Down: Observers expectation and knowledge

67

Absolute threshold

minimal amount of stimulation that can be detected

68

Difference threshold

Lowest level of stimulation to sense a change in stimulation

69

JND

smallest difference in intensity between 2 stimuli that person can detect

70

Weber's Law

For 2 stimuli to be perceived as different, the second must differ from first at a constant proportion

71

Signal Detection Theory

sensation is not passive it has to do with sensitivy and response bias

72

Sensory Adaptations

System respond less to stimuli that continue without change
Exceptions: vision, severe pain

73

Gestalt approach

the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

74

Proximity (grouping)

close distance

75

Similarity (grouping)

similar to one another

76

Continuity (grouping)

continuous lines and patterns

77

Closure (grouping)

incomplete figures as complete

78

Retinal disparity

each eye produces a different image

79

Convergance

turning inward of eyes to close objects

80

Monocular cues

use one eye for far away objects

81

Perpceptual constancy

organization of changing sensations into a stable size, shape, and color

82

Classical conditioning

learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus through repeated paring with that simulus

83

Pavlovs Study

Taught dogs to associate food with a bell

84

Unconditioned response and stimulus

innate response and stimulus

85

Conditioned response and stimulus

learned response and stimulus

86

Acquisition

learning association between the 2 stimuli

87

Generalization

When a CR has been associated with a particular stimulus, similar stimuli will evoke the same response

88

Discrimination

learned tendency to respond to a restricted range of stimuli or only to stimulus learned during training

89

Extinction

learning that the CS no longer predicts the US

90

Spontaneous recovery

preservation of original CS-US associated after extinction training

91

Second-order conditioning

new stimulus replaces conditioned stimulus
Tend to be weaker