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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (67):
1

What is extinction

Learning that the conditioned stimulus no longer predicts the unconditioned stimulus

2

Spontaneous Recovery

Preservation of original CS-US association after extinction training

3

Second-Order Conditioning

New stimulus becomes associated with previously conditioned stimulus and replaces it. Tends to be weaker

4

Conditioned aversion

Learning to fear (negative association to something)

5

Watson & Raynor

Loud noise + rat
Baby generalized fear to other fuzzy objects

6

Counterconditioning

CS paired with another stimulus to inhibit an unwanted response

7

Operant Conditioning

Responses are learned because they affect the enviornment

8

Law of Effect

The tendency of an organism to produce a behavior depends on the effect it has on the environment

9

Puzzlebox

Cats operate on latches to escape the box to get the food

10

Skinner Radical Behaviorism

behavior is controlled by its consequences

11

Skinner Box

Hungry rat presses bar to receive food pellet

12

Reinforcement vs Punishment

Reinforcement= increases probability of response
Punishment- decreases probability that behavior will occur

13

Shaping

reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired response

14

Successive approximation

reward rat initially to walk towards lever and keep rewarding with progress

15

P Reinforcement
N Reinforcement
P Punishment
N Punishment

P Reinforcement: stimulus makes the behavior more likely
N Reinforcement: behavior more likely because its followed by the removal of an stimulus
P Punishment: unpleasant stimulus= decreases probability of behavior
N Punishment: removal of pleasant stimulus= decreases probability of behavior

16

Continuous vs Intermittent Reinforcement

Continuous: consequences every time behavior occurs
Intermittent: Only sometimes

17

Fixed-Ratio
Variable Ratio
Fixed-Interval
Variable-Interval

Fixed-Ratio: reinforcement for fixed proportion of responses
Variable Ratio: Reward for some percentage of responses, number of responses is unpredictable
Fixed-Interval: reinforcement in a fixed amount of time
Variable-Interval: reinforcement for responses after an amount of time that is not constant

18

Effects of Punishment

Difficulty distinguishing which behavior is being punished
Individual may come to fear person giving punishment
Punishment may not eliminate existing rewards

19

Types of motivation

Extrinsic: Pursuit of goal for external rewards
Intrinsic: Pursuit of activity for its own sake

20

Overjustification effect

too much reward undermines intrinsic motivation

21

Observational Leaning

learning by observing the behavior of others

22

Modeling

imitating others' behavior

23

Bundura

Kids started to copy the models aggressive behavior to the doll

24

Media affecting aggressive behavior

Numbing Effect
Changed world view
Ideas for aggressive behavior
Priming feelings of aggression

25

Recall vs Recognition

Recall: produce memories using minimal retrieval cues
Recognition: conscious knowledge of whether something has been previously encountered

26

Steps of information processing

Encoding- environmental information into meaningful entity
Storage- maintain encoded information over time
Retrieval- Pulling memory from storage

27

Sensory memory

holds information for a fraction of a second after the stimulus disappears
Iconic: Visual (Sperling flashed letters)
Echoic: Auditory

28

Short-Term memory

information that is available to consciousness for about 20-30 seconds

29

Selective attention

focusing on important information

30

Inattentional blindness

can sense but not perceive stimulus

31

Change Blindness

lack of detection of changes in stimuli

32

Explicit Memory

conscious recollection of material from long term memory

33

Implicit Memory

Not consciously, but expressed in behavior

34

Declarative memory vs Procedural memory

Declarative- memory of facts, rules, concepts, events
Procedural- memory for the performance of skills

35

Semantic vs episodic

Semantic- memory of general knowledge
Episodic- memory of personally experienced events

36

Chunking

organizing information into small, meaningful bits to aid memory

37

Mneumonics

strategies and tricks for improving memory

38

Maintenance vs Elaborative rehearsal

Maintenance- repetition of material
Elaborative- thinking about the meaning of information

39

Levels of processsing

information can be processed at different depths

40

Shallow processing

superficial features

41

Deep processing

meaning

42

Contex-dependent

environment in which something is learned serves as cue for retrieval

43

State-dependent

tendency to remember something when the individual is in the same physical or mental state during experience

44

Serial position effect

Tendency for recall of the first and last items to recall the middle
Primacy- recalling beginning
Recency- Recalling the end

45

Types of amnesia

Anterograde- new information not maintained
Retrograde- can't remember information from before head injury

46

Eyewitness Memory

high rate of mistakes and misremembering changes the memory

47

Representativeness heuristic

tendency to see someone or something as belonging to a particular group or category be evaluation how similar this object is to a typical object in the categoy

48

Base rates vs base-rate fallacy

base rates- frequency with which given events or patterns occur in the total population
Fallacy= ignore base rates

49

Availability heursitcs

strategy for making judgements based on how easily specific kinds of information can be brought to mind

50

Simulation heuristic

tendency to judge the likelihood of an event by the ease with which one can image it

51

Outcomes of bilingualism

Greater cognitive flexibility
Typically outperform monolingual students in academics
Better executive control
Different types of brain activation

52

Environment effects on intellectual abilities

Stimulating environment= increased IQ
Non stimulating= cognitive impairment

53

Stereotype threat

threat felt when stereotype is more noticeable to targets of negative stereotypes

54

Fixed mindset

performance is assumed to reflect ability that is unchangeable

55

Growth mindset

performance is assumed to reflect effort that is modifiable

56

Hierarchy of needs

ascends from basic biological needs to more complex psychological motivations

57

Self-actualization

to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential

58

James-Lange theory of emotion

Physiological arousal ---> emotion

59

Cannon-Bard Theory of emotion

Physiological arousal + emotion

60

Two-factor theory of emotion

First we experience physiological arousal then we interpret the reason and provide an explanation (emotion)

61

Misattribution of arousal

can enhance emotion, mistaking fear/etc with arousal

62

Wobble bride study

Men who just crossed the wobble bridge confused emotion of fear with arousal with the woman

63

Facial feedback hypothesis

act of forming a facial expression elicits the corresponding emotion

64

Life change stress

brings changes in how individual lives and requires adaptation

65

Social Readjustment Rating Scale

score of major life events that can indicate stress percentage

66

Daily hassles

minor annoying events which require some degree of adjustment

67

Lazarus and Folkamans concept of cognitive appraisal

human thought process that interprets new situations, assesses those situations for potential threats and then selects the appropriate reaction to the situation