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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (70):
1

Behavioral, psychoanalytic, evolutionary, and biological perspectives

Biological- Physical systems affect behavior
Evolutionary- Natural selection of traits
Behavior genetics- contribution of genes and environment to behavior
Psychoanalytic- Unconscious dynamics within the individual
Behavioral- Learning via reinforcements and punishments
Cognitive- How people reason, remember, interpret
Sociocultural- How social and cultural forces shape individuals' behavior

2

Operational Definition

Statement about the procedures the researcher used to measure a variable

3

Positive vs Negative correlation

(-)Variables change in opposite directions
(+)variables change in same direction

4

Does correlation indicate causation

NO

5

Random assignment

Participants have an equal chance of being in every experimental group

6

IV vs DV

IV- manipulated by experimenter
DV- Outcome

7

Statistical significance

probability that results are due to chance (p-value)

8

What is myelin sheath

Wrapped around axon for faster transmission

9

What is action potential

electro-chemical impulse that travels from the cell body down to the end of the axon

10

Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that travel across synapse from one neuron to receptors on the next cell

11

Endorphins, Dopamine, Serotonin, Epinephrine

Endorphins- reduce pain and promote pleasure
Dopamine- Voluntary movement, reward, learning, memory Serotonin- affects neurons involved in sleep, appetite, mood
Epinephrine- involved in stress response

12

Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic

Sym- increases physiological arousal
Para- decreases arousal

13

Brainstem

Primitive behaviors under voluntary control

14

Amygdala

Emotions- aggression and fear

15

Hypothalamus

maintains internal balance

16

Hippocampus

Form new memories and facts

17

Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital

Frontal- (front) planning, creative thinking, personality
Parietal- (top) sensor cortex
Temporal- (sides) auditory cortex
Occipital- (back) visual cortex

18

Range of reaction

genetic makeup establishes range of possible developmental outcomes

19

Twin studies

compare pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins

20

How heritable is intelligence

Its half heritable and half environmental

21

Circadian rhythm

apporximate schedule for physical processes
Has SCN- sensitve to changes in light

22

SCN reaction to light

Dark- SCN tells pineal gland to secrete melatonin
Light- SCN tells pineal gland to stop secreting melatonin

23

REM sleep

brain waves resemble wakefulness
(HR,BP,BR rapid or irregular)

24

3 STAGES OF N-REM

1- similar to drowsiness (hypnic jerk)
2- True sleep, reductions in heart rate and muscle tension
3/4- Deep sleep, hard to awaken, growth hormones released from pituitary

25

Rooting and Moro reflexes

Rooting- Sucking motion when lips touch something
Moro- infant feels as if its falling

26

Piagets approach to cognitive development

Children understand the world with schemes

27

Piagets 4 stages of cognitive development

1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)- develop object permanence- something continues to exist even when it cannot be seen
2.Preoperational (2-7)- Egocentric, animistic thinking
cannot grasp conservation- (physical properties do not change when appearance changes)
3. Concrete (7-11)
Understand conservation and transivity
4. Formal operations (11-100) abstract reasoning, thinking about future

28

Vygotsky's theory

Cognitive development results from guidance
Scaffolding- teacher adjusts amount of support to child's level of development

29

Harlow study

soft contact (monkey preferred soft no food mom to wired food mom)

30

Ainsworth attachment

Adults act as a secure base from which to explore

31

Types of attacment styles: Secure, Insecure- anxious/ambivalent, Insecure-aviodant

Secure- Upset when parents leave, Happy when parents come back
Ambivalent- Upset when parents leave, upset when parents come Avoidant- little reaction to coming and leaving

32

Baumrind parenting styles

Authoritarian- Low, warmth, high control
Permissive- High Warmth, low control
Uninvolved- Low warmth, low control
Authoritative (BEST)- High warmth, high control

33

Kohlberg's stages of moral development

Preconventional(4-10)- Avoid punishment or gain reward
Conventional (after age 10)- "Good Boy" "Law and Order"
Postconventional- Individual principles and conscience

34

Sex vs Gender

Sex- physical, anatomical
Gender- meaning society and individuals give to female and male categories

35

Similarities vs Differences

Similarities- men and women same
Differences- men and women and different

36

Social learning theory

Emphasis on learning behaviors via reinforcement/punishment and modeling
(gender-roles)

37

Bottom-up vs Top-down processing

Bottom-up- Starts with raw data toward brain
Top-down- starts with observer's expectations and knowledge

38

Absolute thershold

minimal amount of stimulation that can be detected

39

Difference threshold

Lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occured

40

Sensor Adaptation

tendency of sensory systems to respond less to stimuli that continue without change

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Gestalt apporach

the whole is greater than the sum of its sensory parts

42

Retinal disparity and convergenec

disparity- images produce different image on each retina
Convergence- turning inwards for near target

43

Classical conditioning

learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus through repeated pairing with that stimulus

44

Pavlov

Rang bell with food and made dog salivate

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UR, US, CR, CS

UR- innate response to US
US- stimulus that automatically elicits response
CR- learned response to stimulus that did not originally evoke the response
CS- previously US that elicits the CR

46

Conditioned aversion

learning to fear

47

Watson and Raynor

Paired loud noise with rat, Albert generalized fear to other fuzzy objects

48

Operant Conditioning

certain responses are learned because they operate on, or affect, the environment

49

Skinner box

hungry animal placed in box and presses bar when receives food pellet

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shaping

reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired response

51

PR
NR
PP
NP

PR- positive stimulus, more behavior
NR- Removal of negative stimulus, more behavior
PP- Negative stimulus, Less behavior
NP- Removal of positive stimulus, Less behavior

52

Continuous and intermittent reinforcement

Continuous- consequences every time
Intermittent- consequences some times

53

FR
VR
FI
VI

FR- reinforcement for fixed proportion
VR- Reinforcement for unpredictable proportion
FI- Reinforcement for fixed amount of time
VI- Reinforcement for inconsistent amount of time

54

Intrinsic vs Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic- pursuit for external rewards
Intrinsic- Pursuit of activity for its own sake

55

Over justification effect

Too much reward= undermines intrinsic motivation

56

Observational learning

learning by observing the behavior of others

57

Bandura dolls

Adult actor showed agressive acts toward dolls and children copied

58

Sensory, Short-term and long term

Sensory- system that holds information for a fraction of a second
Short-term memory- for information that is available to consciousness for about 20-30 seconds
Long-term memory- unlimited capacity

59

Explicit vs Implicit memory

Explicit- conscious recollection of material
Implicit- not in mind but expressed in behavior

60

Craik and Tulving level of processing

information can be processed at different depths
Shallow- superficial
Deep- meaning

61

Context-dependent vs State-dependent

Context- Environment
State- Physical or mental state

62

Anterograde vs Retrograde

anterograde- new information not maintained
Retrograde- can't remember information from before head injury

63

Eyewitness tesitmony

Is not reliable because there is a high mistake of mistakes and misremembering

64

Representatives, availability, simulation heuristics

Representatives- tendency to see someone belonging to particular group
Availability- Strategy for making judgements based on how easility specific kinds of information can be brought to mind
Simulation- tendency to judge the likelihood of an event by the ease with one can image it

65

Positive outcomes to bilingualism

Greater cognitive flexibility, outperform students in upper grades, executive control, different brain activation

66

Fixed and growth mindset

Fixed- performance is assumed to reflex ability that is unchangeable
Growth- performance is assumed to reflect effort that is modifiable

67

Maslows hierachy of needs

ascends from basic biological needs to more complex psychological motivations

68

self-actualization

to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential

69

Misattribution of arousal

Fear can be confused for arousal can can enhance it

70

Facial feedback hypothesis

act of forming a facial expression elicits the corresponding emotion