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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (65):
1

Cognition

acquisition, storage, and transformation of information

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Cognitive processes

memory, motor movement, attention, language

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Introspection

the observation of one's own mental and emotional processes

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Behaviorism

the observation of behavior - not of one's self

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Information Processing Approach

stimulus --> attention --> perception --> thought processes --> decision --> response

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Contemporary Cognitive Psychology

understanding cognitive processing through computation, logic, and mathematical modeling

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3 branches of cognitive psychology

Experimental Cognitive Psychology - understanding the processes that underline behavior and cognition. Ex. stroop test
Cognitive Neuroscience - understanding the neural mechanisms that influence cognition. Ex. EEGs, sleep studies
Computational Cognitive Science - understanding cognitive processing through computation and logic. Ex. if, then's

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Frontal Lobe

behind forehead - judgment, decision-making

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Parietal Lobe

behind frontal lobe - touch, body feelings

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Temporal Lobe

between ears - auditory processing, language, and memory

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Occipital Lobe

back of head - visual processing

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Forebrain

cognitive processing

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Midbrain

consciousness

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Hindbrain

human functions

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Brodmann Area

covers 100 areas of the brain; associated with different cellular components

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Sensation

stimulation of sensory receptors by environmental stimuli

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Transduction

process by which sensations become perceptions

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Perception

set of processes by which we recognize, organize, and make sense of environmental stimuli

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Why are illusions important for sensation and perception?

Important for understanding the differences between sensation and perception in which they create a mental representation of the stimulus - tendency to perceive constancy despite changes in sensation.

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Top-Down Processing

the context surrounding the stimulus will cue you into the meaning. Ex. 12 B 14 OR
A Same stimulus
B
C

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Bottom-Up Processing

perceiver builds a representation based on sensory input and stimulus information. Ex. black & white splotches and the distinct cow

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Template Theory

take a new stimulus and attempt to match it with a stored template. Ex. chair

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Prototype Theory

you have created a mental representation and every new stimulus gets ranked and falls in a category. Ex. tomato: fruit or vegetable?

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Feature Matching Theory

break stimulus down into components; identify its features, reconstruct it, then name it - we recognize patterns based on features. Ex. T --> l L | --> T --> "T"

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Recognition by Components Theory

geons - shapes. Objects - things that are made up by your version of geons. Ex. figuring out the rest of an object

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Gestalt Law of Pragnanz

a visual array is perceived in the simplest and more organized form. Ex. 2 triangles/3 circles

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Pattern Recognition

identification of a perceptual object

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Figure-Ground Distinction

the subject in the array is highlighted and the background fades to the back. Ex. mouse/cat illusion

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Proximity

articulates that we see things and group them based on how close they are. Ex. dots & closeness - 12/group & 3 groups

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Similarity

group things that are alike. Ex. red and black dots

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Continuity

breaking stimuli down - we perceive smooth lines. Ex. X - is it two lines that intersect or two sideway V's? Two lines that intersect

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Closure

articulates that we put boundaries on figures. Ex. 2 triangles/3 circles

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Symmetry

we assume that figures are symmetric. Ex. What does the other half of half a heart look like?

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Size Constancy

The same size circle with different sized shapes around it

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Shape Constancy

door opening, gets thinner

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Color Constancy

blue or yellow lit rooms, colors differ

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Perceptual Constancy

tendency to perceive constancy despite changes in sensation --> it provides the experience of stability

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Face Processing

unique as it detects faces holistically

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3 pieces of evidence of face processing

brain tissue (FFA)
upright faces are processed holistically/upside down faces are treated as objects
prosopagnosia - "face blindness" - doesn't process faces like faces

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Visual agnosia

deficit in the ability to perceive sensory information

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"What" pathway

helps identify objects (moves to temporal lobe)

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"Where/How" pathway

helps identify where objects are in relation to your body and how you can interact with it

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Attention

selecting certain stimuli from available stimulus, and focusing cognitive resources on those selected

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Consciousness

the feeling of awareness and the content of that awareness - conscious awareness may emerge once "attention" is brought to the attention of the "mind"

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Pre-Consciouss Processing

information sitting between consciousness and attention. Ex. blinking, blindsight, memories

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Habituation

becoming accustomed to a stimulus. Ex. living near the airport and getting used to the noise

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Dishabituation

a change in the stimulus that prompts conscious awareness. Ex. eat orange pixy stix, get used to it, eat purple pixy stix, orange is sour again

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Signal Detection

detecting a stimulus in a field of irrelevant distractor stimuli. Ex. Hit, Miss, False Alarm, and Correct Rejection

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Active Signal Detection

"search"

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Passive Signal Detection

vigilance (hunting) - attention to a field of stimuli for an extended period of time (can cause fatigue)

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Distractor Similarity

distractor looks like the target. Ex. creme betweens and oreos

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Two stages of signal detection

Parallel: activation of representation of all possible targets
Serial: sequential sifting through each activated item to find the target

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Movement Filter Theory

movement affects the ease of search - sometimes it helps, sometimes it inhibits. Ex. brown cow in a field of black cows --> moving is easier to pick it out

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Automatic Processes

attention that occurs without awareness. Ex. driving

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Controlled Processes

attention that requires consciousness --> becomes automatic with practice. Ex. riding a bike for the first time

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Automatization

the process by which something controlled becomes automatic (over learning). Ex. fire drills, flight attendant safety procedure

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Selective Attention

focusing on one stimulus and not others. Ex. talking on the phone with someone

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Attentuation Theory

attention lowers the strength of non-target information so that target stimuli are easiest to attend to

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Filter Theories

selection for stimulus occurs by blocking (filtering) distractors

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Change blindness

a change when a visual stimulus is introduced but goes unnoticed. Ex. Video: Whodunnit?

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Divided Attention Theories

Kahneman's Attention Theory
Wicken's Multiple Resource Theory
Posner's Spotlight of Attention Theory

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Kahneman's Attention Theory

single component of resources
can multitask - just uses same resource
the more tasks you do at once, the more errors occur

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Wicken's Multiple Resource Theory

attention is a combination of multiple resources
can do as many different things at the same time, as long as they don't take up the same module

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Posner's Spotlight of Attention Model

multitasking is impossible
attention serves as a spotlight; cannot focus on different tasks

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3 Functions of Conscious Attention

signal, selective, and divided attention