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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (67):
1

Components of a problem

initial state, subgoals, operators, and goal state

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Problem space

mental model of the issue

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Frames of mind

Directed Thinking - rational, goal oriented thought
Undirected Thinking - unconstrained, creative thought

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Well-defined problems

problems with clear initial and goal states, operators, and subgoals

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Ill-defined problems

problems with unclear initial and goal states, operators and subgoals

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Knowledge Rich problems

problems that can only be solved with sub partial prior knowledge. Ex. performing open heart surgery

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Knowledge Lean problems

problems that can be solved without much prior knowledge. Ex. walking a dog

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Algorithms and problems with it

shortcuts that help remember material
Problems: time consuming

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Heuristics

working backward, hill climbing and analogical problem solving

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Analogical Problem Solving

using similarities between current and old problems to help generate a solution

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Types of analogical problems

Surface similarity - relationship between appearance of parts
Structural similarity - relationship between parts is similar
Procedural similarity - different actions between parts is similar

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Mental set

tendency to use a strategy that has been helpful in the past, regardless of whether it's appropriate now

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Insight

sudden realization of how to solve a problem

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Incubation - how could this help problem solving?

process of putting problems aside for a period of time; could help problem solving by putting away unimportant info, unfocused attention allows for new perspectives

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Expertise

extremely high level of thinking and performance in a specific domain; 10,000 hour rule

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Metacognition

monitoring of cognitive processes and states of knowledge

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Creativity

process of producing something both original and worthwhile

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Creativity tests

Divergent task - Guilford's Alternative Uses Task - generate alternative uses for a common item. Ex. different ways to use a hair dryer
Convergent task - Remote Associates Task - identify a fourth word that ties the other three together. Ex. shoulder, sweat, sore... cold

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Language

system of symbols that are used to communicate ideas and information

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Language criteria

1. Communicative - exchange of thoughts and feelings
2. Arbitrary symbolism - connection between the symbol and the "thing"
3. Regular structure - only certain arrangements have meaning. Ex. ARE and REA
4. Structured at multiple levels - can be analyzed at more than one level. Ex. DOG ate CAT vs ate DOG CAT
5. Generative - language users can produce novel utterances
6. Displacement - language users can communicate about things that are not in the here and now. Ex. talk about dreams, past, and present
7. Dynamic - expand and accommodate new stuff. Ex. jeggings, hater, unfriend

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Units of language

Phoneme - smallest unit of sound
Morpheme - smallest unit of meaning
Lexicon - mental collection of all meaning units: 80,000
Syntax - grammatical rules that specify how morphemes are arranged to form sentences
Semantic Structure - meaning of utterances
Pragmatics - communication of intention based on context

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Vocabulary growth

18 months (3-100 words), 2 years (300 words), 3 years (1000 words), 10 years (~ to adults)

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Fundamental aspects of language

Production - ability to produce linguistic output
Comprehension - ability to understand linguistic input

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Broca's Area and Aphasia

Area - production center of the brain
Aphasia - comprehension is intacked, production is difficult

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Wernicke's Area and Aphasia

Area - comprehension center of the brain
Aphasia - production is intacked, comprehension is difficult

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Non-linguistic communication components

Gesture - movements that are coordinated in the time and meaning with the context of language
Discourse markers - indirectly relevant words/phrases a speaker uses. Ex. like, um
Prosodic cues - rhythm, stress, and intonation that provide additional information about what a speaker is saying

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Is ASL a true language?

Yes, It meets all 7 criteria, aphasias affect ASL, it has evolved and developed like a spoken language

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Evolution of a language

jargon (random jumbled words), homesign (family language), pidgin (language by at least two groups), creole (mixture of different languages), language system

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Animal communication

feelings and emotional states, warnings, mating desires, food sources

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Confirmation bias

tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's existing beliefs (major problem with primate studies)

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Emotion

a person's affective state of feeling

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Mood

extended emotional state

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Categorical approach (models of emotion)

emotions are distinct - Ekman's Basic Emotion Theory: innate - everyone is born with 6 emotions

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Dimensional approach (models of emotion)

emotions result from a combination of factors - Barrett & Russell's dimensional model (high/low arousal & negative/positive valence)

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Appraisal

evaluations we make about situations relevant to our goals, concerns, and wellbeing - this determines whether we experience emotion, and which emotion we experience

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Automatic Appraisal

non-conscious, memory-based (gut feeling)

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Deliberate Appraisal

effortful, related to decision making

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Types of emotion regulation

Situation Stimulus - approach desirable situations and avoid non-desirable situations
Situation Modification - change the situation to alter emotional state
Attention Deployment - deliberate distraction
Cognitive Change - using reappraisal to change the meaning of the situation
Response Modulation - continuing emotion of the situation

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Attentional Narrowing

increased arousal leads to decreased conscious awareness of environmental stimuli

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Forebrain

cognitive processing

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Midbrain

consciousess

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Hindbrain

human functions

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Top-Down Processing

the context surrounding the stimulus will cue you into the meaning. Ex. 12 B 14 and A B C

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Bottom-Up Processing

trying to gain meaning with something that has no meaning. Ex. black and white sploches and the distinct cow

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4 Bottom-Up Theories

Template - take new stimulus and attempt to match it with a stored template. Ex. chair and existing matches
Prototype - creating mental representations and every new stimulus gets ranked and falls into a category. Ex. tomato, fruit or vegetable?
Feature Matching - break stimulus down into components, identify features, put back together. Ex. T | - T "T"
Recognition by Components - geons make up objects

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Movement filter theory

movement affects the ease of search - sometimes it helps and sometimes it inhibits

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Attention in feature integration theory

conscious attention works as a "glue" to integrate representations of features so that the target can be detected

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Baddeley's Working Model - why is it better than the classic view?

this is a model in which different components of short-term memory can help place information into long-term memory. This model uses both visual and auditory working memory to store info instead of using basic short-term memory.

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Encoding specificity principle

memory is best when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval

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State-Dependent memory

improved retrieval what the state or mind at encoding is the same at retrieval

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Context-Dependent memory

improved retrieval when the environment at encoding is the same at retrieval

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5 explanations for forgetting

-effortful forgetting
-encoding failures
-inadequate retrieval cues
-decay
-interference

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Intrusion Error

information that is related to a theme of memory, but is not part of the original memory, and becomes associated with the event

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Savings in relearning

previously presented and forgotten material is relearned faster than novel material

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Forcing functions

limitation that prevents an action without considering key information. Ex. putting a sticky note reminder on your steering wheel

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Judgment

assessment of likelihood, quantity or frequency (estimating costs)

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Decision Making

making a selection from various options (investments and commitments)

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Base rates

relative frequency with which an event occurs in the population

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Heuristics and one bias in judgment

Representativeness Heuristic - deciding an object belongs to a category because it appears to be representative to that category
Availability Heuristic/Bias - estimated frequency of a given event is dependent on how easily related information can be assessed
Recognition Heuristic - the option that is most easily recognized gets selected

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One fallacy in judgment

Conjunction Fallacy - incorrect assumption that the probability of two events occurring together greater than one of the events occurring alone. Ex. bank teller/feminist activity

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Heuristics in decision making

Satsficing Heuristic - selecting the first option that satisfies the minimum requirements
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic - decision is influenced by an implied starting point and subsequent adjustments

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Bias in decision making

Hindsight bias - tendency to remember initial conditions as more suggestive of one option that the other. Ex. financial aid vs reputation

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Fallacy in decision making

Sunk Cost Fallacy - tendency to continue an endeavor once an investment has been made. Ex. staying in a 5-year relationship because you're already in too deep

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Multiattribute Utility Theory

we may account for all attributes of all possible options and determine the best choice. Ex. excel sheet with every specific pro and con

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Bounded Rationality Principle

decision making is only partially relational due to limited information and processing resources

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Framing

reaction to a particular choice differs depending on how the options are presented. Ex. advertising and how they present what they want to sell

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Loss aversion

sensitivity to potential losses rather than potential gains during decision making