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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (66):
1

Memory

retaining on past experiences to use that info in the present

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Three memory processes

Encoding: transformation of information into mental representation (making meaning)
Storage: maintain encoded information in memory
Retrieval: calling back the stored information in response to a cue for use in an activity (stimulus or hook - test question)

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Recognition

selecting remembered material from a set of presented options (multiple choice)

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Recall

generating remembered material (short answer)

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Types of Recall

Free: in any order, no cues
Cued: in relation to a clue or piece of information
Serial: in the order the items were presented

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Multistore Model of Memory - 3 types

Sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

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Capacity

the amount of info that can be held in memory

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Duration

amount of time info can be held in memory

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Sensory memory (Sperling's Partial Report)

initial repository for sensory information
Capacity: large
Duration: 250-500 milliseconds after exposure

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Short-term memory

Capacity: 7 +/- 2 pieces of information can be held
Duration: about 30 seconds without rehearsal

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Long-term memory

Capacity: infinite
Duration: infinite

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Chunking

organizing information into meaningful pieces

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Iconic memory

visual memory store, less than 1 second

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Echonic memory

auditory store, 3-4 seconds (pitch pipe in a choir)

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Baddeley's Working Memory Model

Working memory components narrowing down to long-term memory
Central Executive, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, phonological loop, all leading to long term memory

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Components of Baddeley's Working Memory Model

Central Executive: "CEO" makes decisions on whether to pull/integrate visuospatial and phonological info to episodic buffer
Visuospatial Sketchpad: responsible for visual representation (map to Naz/Wegmans)
Episodic Buffer: a place to integrate visuospatial and phonological information
Phonological Loop: memory that is dedicated to auditory information (talking to yourself) - subvocal rehearsal (words from map to Naz/Wegmans)

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Serial Position Curve

the order in which items are presented affects the ability to recall them correctly

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Primacy Effect

items presented early in the list are more likely to be recalled (long-term memory)

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Recency Effect

items presented late in the list are more likely to be recalled (short-term memory)

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Encoding

transforming info into a representation that can be stored in memory

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Forms of Encoding

Visual: based on a form or appearance - CAT, MOSS (capital)
Acoustic: based on sound - rat, bat, mat (rhyme)
Semantic: based on meaning - cow, horse, pig

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Dual Coding Theory

information is best remembered when using acoustic and semantic codes

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Declarative memory - "Explicit"

memory that involves conscious recollection of events and facts

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Types of declarative memory

Episodic: memory for past events that occurred at a specific date and time - usually self relevant
Semantic: memory for concepts and facts, including general knowledge about the world - not self-relevant

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Reconstructive Retrieval

schemas of episodic memories that alter encoded memory representations

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Schemas

mental templates for knowledge that are built from experience

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Levels of Processing model

memory varies along a continuous dimension in terms of depth of processing.
input --> structural, acoustic, semantic --> processing into long-term memory

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Distinctiveness

paying attention to differences

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Relational Processing

paying attention to similarities and relationships

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3 factors that can influence consolidation

Sleep - maintaining a normal amount of sleep can help preserve long-term memories (deep sleep)
Time - Distributed practice can help maintain information longer (studying for a test)
Elaborative Encoding - connecting new information to existing information in memory

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Elaborative vs Deep Encoding

Elaborative: adding new info to existing info
Deep: processing of meaning to a subject

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Explicit (Declarative) Memory

memory that requires conscious recollection

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Implicit (Non-declarative) Memory

memory that refers to skills and procedures

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Episodic Memory (related to explicit memory)

memory for past events that occurred at a specific date and time "I remember.."

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Semantic Memory (related to explicit memory)

memory for concepts and facts, including general knowledge about the world "I know.."

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Priming (related to implicit memory)

exposure to one stimulus influences the response to other stimuli

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Muscle Memory (related to implicit memory)

memory for the performance of different types of action

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Nonassociative learning (related to implicit learning)

change in the strength of a response to a specific stimulus due to a repeated exposure (habituation, sensitization)

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Associative learning (related to implicit memory)

learning an association between one stimulus and a behavior or other stimulus (classical & operant conditioning)

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Classical conditioning

learned association between two stimuli

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Operant conditioning

behavior is controlled by the presence of consequences

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Reinforcement schedules

rate and pattern of reinforcement (or punishment) - continuous; fixed vs variable (predictability vs slot machine); ratio vs interval (# of times behavior is exhibited vs amount of time has elapsed since last reinforcement)

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Encoding specificity

memory is most effective when information available at encoding is also available at retrieval

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Context-Dependent Memory

improved retrieval when the environmental context at encoding matches the context at retrieval

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State-Dependent Memory

improved retrieval when the mood or state of consciousness at encoding matches the context at retrieval

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Savings in relearning

previously presented and forgotten material is relearned faster than novel material

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Mnemonics

metamemory techniques to help you store information

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Types of mnemonics

categorical clustering - food list
interactive imagery - little Albert (baby with crazy gray hair)
Method of Loci - pairing info with locations/real objects
Acronyms - PEMDAS
Acrostics - Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

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Why do mnemonics work?

meaningful encoding, structural retrieval, & speed

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Retrograde

loss of previously stored memories
*disruption of long-term memory

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Anterograde

loss of ability to store new memories
*disruption of consolidation

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Temporally Graded Amnesia

amount of loss changes in relation to the time of the injury

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5 explanations for forgetting

-effortful forgetting
-encoding failures
-inadequate retrieval cues
-decay
-interference

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Retrieval cues

stimuli that help you pull pieces of information from memory. Ex: heads up game

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Decay theory
& describe two major problems

memory fades over time, especially if that specific memory isn't accessed or rehearsed
Problems: old memories persist without rehearsal
Ex: planets, organelles

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Interference theory

ability to retrieve target information is inhibited by other information

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Two parts to interference theory

Retroactive - new info interferes with retrieving old info. Ex: trying to remember old address
Proactive - old info interferes with retrieving new info. Ex: park your car in same spot everyday -> park it somewhere else today and you go to old spot looking for it

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Intrusion error

info that is related to a theme of a memory but is not part of the original memory and becomes associated with the memory

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3 major types of memory biases

Hindsight bias - knowing something that you don't truly know but actually ends up happening
Rosy Retrospection - remembering past events more positive than they were. Like college sucking right now but saying it was great in 5 years
Confirmation bias - gaining info that agrees with your opinion - comic strip example

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Misinformation Effect

questions containing misleading information can distort memory. Ex: car accident and speed

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Eyewitness Testimony

detailed recollection of events given by a witness in a court of law

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Prospective Memory & Time/Event bases

remembering to carry out some intended action. Ex: get gas; write a paper
Time based: memory for an event that has to be carried out at a certain time
Event based: memory for an event that has to be carried out whenever you come in contact with it

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Forcing functions

limitation that prevents an action without considering key information

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cognitive phase (proceduralization)

individual skill practice, involving effortful and focused skill development

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associative phase (proceduralization)

practicing individual of skills together in chunks
Ex. learning to simultaneously maintain a lane position in a car while checking over your shoulder before changing lanes

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autonomous phase (proceduralization)

practice is devoted to combining chunks of skills together into one smooth process