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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (77):
1

What is a fish?

-an aquatic vertebrate with gills and with limbs in the shape of fins

2

There are _____ living species of fishes, ______ families, and _____ order

-25,000
-482
-57

3

There are ___ jawless fish, _____ cartilaginous, and _______ bony fish

-85
-850
-23,000

4

Bony fish make up about _____% of fish species

-90

5

____% of modern fishes are marine, ___% of fishes are freshwater, and ___% are both

-58
-41
-1

6

What are some properties of water that influence fish functional design?

-Density
-Transparency
-Low compressibility
-Properties as a solvent

7

Water is _____ times denser than air

-800

8

Light rarely goes over ____ meters deep

-100

9

Evolutionary history of fish goes back ___ mya

-450

10

Apomorphy

derived character

11

Fishes are not a natural group unless ____ are included

tetrapods

12

What led to craniates?

-development of internal skeleton and bony external skeleton

13

____ is an early relative of amphioxis

Pikaia

14

Characteristics of ostracoderms

-Armored head
-Jawless
-body with narrow scales
-no internal skeleton

15

Dermal skeleton

-always bony and includes teeth

16

Endoskeleton

-sometimes cartilaginous
-bone is formed around or in cartilage

17

Why might a fish evolve bone

-maybe preventing leaks
-maybe for storage for calcium, phosphate, and carbonate

18

what is the optimal shape for a fish for the flow of water while swimming

-teardrop shape, max diameter 1/3 to 1/2 back from nose and length of 4-5

19

What is an important evolutionary trend among the jawed fishes

evolution of jaw protrusion

20

Characterisitcs of lampreys

-Jawless, with teeth arranged in radiating rows
-2 dorsal fins
-no paired fins

21

Gnasthostomes

-jawed fishes

22

Evolution of jaws allowed for :

-better predation
-also required better predator avoidance

23

Important features of the gnasthosomes

-Evolved with paired fins and internal skeleton and muscles to allow movement
-Added 3rd semicircular canal in ear

24

Jawless fish have:

inner and outer gill arches

25

-Sharks jaw evolution:

-inner arches from jaws and hyoid arch
-outer arches form labial and extrabranchial cartilages

26

Bony fish jaws:

-ony inner arches present

27

Characteristics of placoderms

-powerful jaws and head encased in bones
-Most have a bony joint between head and body armor (unique)

28

Characteristics of sharks and relatives

-Placoid scales
-internal fertilization
-calcified skeleton

29

Sarcopterygians (lobe finned fishes)

-hinged intracranial joint
-single bone attached to shoulder/hip joint
-Living fish include lungfishes and tetrapods

30

Sarcopterygians includes ___ which is believed to be the transition from fish to terrestrial vertebrates

-tiktaalik

31

Acanthodians characteristics

-Highly developed fins with bristled spines
-have paired lamellae on each gill
-has 3 pairs of otoliths

32

Familes in the gnathostomes (jawed craniates)

-Placoderm
-Chondrichtiyass
-Sarcopterygiass
-Acanthodians

33

Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes)

-fins are supported by rays rather than skeletal extensions

34

Actinopterygians include:

-Cladista (birches and reedfishes)
-Chondrostei (sturgeons and paddlefishes)
-Neopterygii (gars, bowfins, teleosts)

35

Some characteristics of rayfinned fishes (actinopterygians)

-Flexible rays
-Spines in advanced teleosts

36

What features are shared between cladista and chondrostei

-Spiracles
-Maxillary united to skull

37

What features are shared between cladista, chondrostei, AND sarcopterygii

-Spiral valve intestine
-Paired lung
-Heterocercal tail

38

Characterists/features of chondrostei (paddlefishes and sturgeons):

-heterocercal tail
-Spiracles
-broad-based fins
-scondary cartilaginous skeleton

39

Characteristics of sturgeon

-Marine anadromous and freshwater
-among the largest freshwater fish in the world
-Source of cavier which leads to overexploitation

40

Neopterygii

gars, bowfins, teleosts

41

Characteristics of gars (holostei)

-abbreviate heterocercal tail
-ganoid scales
-can breathe air

42

Characteristics of bowfin

-median gular plate
-greatly elongate dorsal
-elasmoid-like scales

43

Heterocercal tail

a tail in which the tip of the vertebral column turns upward, extending into the dorsal lobe of the tail fin

44

What is the main group of fish that dominate the word?

-Teleosti -> End Bone

45

Groups of fishes in the Teleosti-->End-Bone

-Osteoglossomorpha
-Elopomorpha
-Clupeomorpha
-Ostariophysi

46

Elopomorpha

-Eels, tarpons, bonefishes
-Diverse group, united by the presense of leptocephalus larvae

47

Characteristic of ostariophysi (catfish, minnows)

-Weberian apparatus
-1/4th of all fish
-2nd most important fish group

48

What is the weberian apparatus

-modified anterior vertebrae to enhance hearing sensitivity

49

Where do minnows occur?
Where do minnows not occur?

-The occur in North America, Africa, and Eurasia
-They are absent in South America, and Australia

50

What improvements make the teleosti group so successful?

-Respiration
-Feeding
-Buoyancy
-Swimming

51

General info on the siluriformes

-Catfish family
-Over 50 families, both freshwater and marine
-Only 2 familes in the US

52

What 2 catfish families are in the US

-Ictaluridae(FW)
-Aridae (marine)

53

Armoured catfish info

-OVer 70 genera
-700 species
-Neotropics

54

Protacanthopterygii

-Salmon, trouts, white fishes, pikes
-"original spiny fishes"

55

Salmoniformes characteristics

-Salmons, trouts, whitefishes
-Many have adipose fin
-Pelvics abdominal
-cycloid scales
-swimbladder connected to gut

56

Paracanthopterygii

-troutperches, codfishes, frogfishes
-Mostly benthic and nocturnal

57

Key innovations in Acanthopterygii

-Jaw protrusion maximal
-Pharyngeal dentition advanced

58

Typical Percomorph body plan

-Ctenoid scales
-Protractile premaxilla
-Physoclistous swimbladder
-Pelvic fins thoracic

59

Percamorpha include:

bluegills to tuna

60

What are the fish zoogeographic regions

-African
-Neotropical
-Oriental
-Palaearctic
-Nearctic
-Australian

61

African zoogeographic region

-95% of fish are FW dispersants
-Dominated by minnows, characoids, catfishes, cichlids

62

Lungfishes are an example of:

-Archaic fish distribution
-Dispersed in SA, Africa, and AUS
-Beleived to be due to the split up of Pangea

63

Neotropical zoogeographic region

-Dominated by characoids, catfishes, gymnotids, cichlids
-NO minnows
-38% FW disp

64

Oriental zoogeographic region

-Dominated by minnows, catfishes

65

Palaearctic zoogeographic region

-420 species
-Dominated by minnows and loaches
-Anadromous fish dominate the arctic drainages

66

Nearctic zoogeographic region

-93% FW disp
-6% anadromous
-dominated by minnows, perches, suckers, sunfishes

67

Example of holoarctic fish distributions

-Pikes salmons
-Fish that exist in nearctic and palaeactic

68

Australian zoogeographic region

-Dominated by anadromous and marine-derived form s

69

Physostomous swimbladder

-tubular connection to gut
-filled with gas by gulping air
-primitive teleosts

70

-Physoclistous wimbladder

-no connection to gut, use of internally generated and absorbed gases

71

What type of tail do teleosts have

-Homocercal
-tail base formed of urostyle

72

What makes coral reefs important

-They are diverse and productive
-global cycles of oxygen and carbon dioxide
-formed by calcium carbonate
-dominated by perch like fish

73

Characteristics of kelp forests

-support large carnivorus predators
-fast growth rates
-help reduce erosion

74

Benthic habitat

-habitat on the bottom of the ocean

75

Pelagic habitat

-habitats off the bottom (regardless of depth)

76

Ocean ecosystems from top to bottom

-Epipelagic
-Mesopelagic
-Bathypelagic
-Abyssal
-Hadal

77

How do mesopelagic fishes migrate?

-vertically
-Use fat-filled sim bladder to migrate vertically