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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (69):
1

What is the most primitive mode of spawning

-Eggs release randomly with no parental care
-Ex. red-tailed shark

2

Iteroparous

-spawn more than once in life

3

Semelparous

-spawn once and then die

4

Promiscuous mating systen

-no mate choice (most primitive
-male and female have multiple partners

5

Polygamy

-one sex with multiple partners
-Polyandry
-Polygyny

6

Polyandry

-1 female with many males (rare)

7

Polygyny

-1 male with several females (common)
-May form Harmes (male takes care of several females)
-May for leks where males aggregate

8

Monogamous mating system

-pairs stay together throughout a breeding season and sometimes life
-ex. ictalurid catfishes, reef fishes

9

Marine fish eggs

-buoyant, light
-may be why marine fishes are more widely spread than FW
-pelagic

10

FW fish eggs

-adhesive eggs, heavier and bigger than pelagic

11

The classic semelparous spawner

-Salmon
-Build nest and guard the territory until spawning is done, then die

12

What gender role are most fishes

-Gonochrostic
-sex fixed early and unchanged

13

Simultaneous hermaphrodites

-male and female gonads in the abdomen of 1 individual
-Hamlets

14

Sequential hermaphrodites

-Protandrous: male changes to female
- Protogynous: Female changes to male (most common)

15

Fish with sex changes are mostly found where

the tropics

16

Parthenogenetic

-all female but use male sperm

17

In what ways are sharks more advanced in their reproductive style compared to a typical fish?

-some sharks have placental-like ovary to provide nourishment to the embryos

18

oophagy

-female keeps feeding the embryo with eggs to provide it nutrition

19

Fish with asymmetrical reproduction

-limits reproduction
-sex parts on left or right side of fish
-four-eyed fish

20

Functions of courtship in fishes

-Species recognition
-Pair bonding
-Orientation to spawning site
-Overcome territorial aggression of male

21

-Features involved in courtship

-Color changes
-Sound production
-Visual displays
-Chemical signals

22

Forms of parental care

-Burying eggs
-Chasing predators
-Keeping young in nest or school
-Internal gestation

23

Costs of parental care

-Guarding means less chance to feed, may reduce gamete production
-predation risk to parent when guarding
-Number of eggs is inversely related to amount of care

24

Diel patterns

-diurnal: 50-66% of species
-nocturnal: 25-33%
-crepuscular: 10%

25

Why is diurnal more distinct in tropics

-because there is less twilight times in tropics
-due to the minimal crepuscular habitat

26

Why is sleep common among fishes

-Energy is conserved
-Avoid predators when light suboptimal for eyes

27

What is the quiet period in fish in the tropics

-during crepuscular time, diurnal fish are going to sleep and nocturnal fish are just waking up

28

What distinguishes fish from most other vertebrates

-intermediate growth (also birds)
-larval stages (free living most of the time)

29

Developmental stages in fish

-larva fishes put their energy into length (helps them swim faster)
-Metamorphosing stage puts energy into fat (helps to survive winter)

30

As the size of eggs _____ parental care _____

increases increases

31

Some components of reproductive effort

-Energy to gonad
-Body mass
-Courtship and spawning
-migration

32

Causes of meristic and morphometric variation

-Environmental variation (temp)
-involves longitudinal meristic counts and allometric growth of body morphology

33

Critical Period Hypotheisis

-in 1-2 days after hatching, fish must find food
-after this point, the fish will die even if it does find food
-has a big effect on population dynamics

34

Point of no return

-cant feed even if they find food

35

Match-mismatch hypothesis

-timing of larval development needs to match peak abundance of key prey organisms for each life stage

36

Terminology of fish STEPS

-Yolk sac
-Pre flex
-Flex
-Post flex
-Juvenille

37

Yolk sac

-yolk provides fish with food and forms digestive tract

38

Pre flex

-stage when vertebrae developing grow straight out
-fins develop inside the fin fold
-critical period, no more yolk and fish needs to find food

39

Flex

-stop making new vertebrae and form a new swimming tail

40

Post flex

-most basic fins are formed, fin rays present
-nice mouth/gills/digestive tract
-fins are not fully developed

41

Juvenille

-fins are fully developed

42

Indirect ontogeny

-2 stage life with metamorphosing, fish from juvenille looks nothing like larvae

43

Direct ontogeny

-no metamorphosing, larvae looks like juvenille (flying fish)

44

Theory of saltatory ontogeny

-fish develops numerous things in one stage, they once they are developed, it jumps to a new stage and so on
-May help explain evolution

45

three foundations of fishery science

-age structure of fish populations
-Energetic dynamic
-Life-history variations

46

Why are otoliths used to age fish

-they are not reabsorbed back into body like scales
-made out of calcium carbonate

47

How do most fish feed

-through suction feeding

48

Function of gill rakers

-filter out food like zooplankton
-if a fish has a lot of gill rakers then its likely eating plankton
-few gill rakers means more fish in diet

49

Function of pyloric caeca

-absorbs fat which increases surface area
-as # of pc increases, % fish in diet increases

50

Gut length in fish

-the larger the gut, the more vegetation in diet
-Piscivore and invertebrate feeders then gut will be less than 1 x body length
-omnivore - 1-2 x body length
-Herbivore/deterivore - 5-28

51

Truncated cone model for suction feeding

-when the fish opens its moth and expands buccal chamber, vacuum is created that quickly sucks in food items in front of mouth

52

Why are there so many different bones and muscles in the gill arches and jaws

-provides abundant opportunities for evolution of diverse feeding

53

Steps in suction feeding

1) Preparation, inward squeeze, increases pressure
2) Expansion: suction, short
3) Compression increases pressure, pushes water out gill openings
4) Recovery: return to pre-preparatory position

54

Two types of colors in fishes

-Pigments
-Structural colors

55

Pigments

-primarily in chromatophores
-Carotenoids
-Melanophores
-Leucophores and iridophores

56

Carotenoids

-reflect yellow, red, orange
-from fishes diet only, cannot manufacture

57

Melanophores

-Black melanin crystals
-can be manufactered

58

Leucophores and iridophores

-white/silver reflections from guanine crystals

59

Structural colors

-light reflected from structures rather tahn pigments
-green, blue, violet, from light refracted by layers of skins/sclaes

60

Static color pattern

-informs about species, sex, reproductive condition or age
-longer-term seasonal or ontogenetic changes
-most likely controlled by horomones

61

Dynamic color patter

-involves rapid exposure of a previously hidden structure
-often involve movement of body/fins, operculate, and/or mouth
-short-term changes primarily under influence of nervous system

62

What is the issue with color shading

-depends on where the light is coming from

63

Disruptive coloration in fishes

-eye ornamentation or dazzle shading
-have a wild color pattern so fish doesn't look like a fish

64

Shoaling

-unorganzied grouping

65

Schooling

-organized, often polarized
-two types: polarized and unpolarized

66

Polarized schooling

-all individuals oriented in the same direction
-uniform speed and direction

67

Non-polarized schooling

-Brought together by mutual attraction, but not organized like a polarized school

68

Behavioral responses to a predator in schools

-Group jump
-avoid
-compact
-fountain

69

Schooling in fish adaptive advantages

1) hydrodynamic efficieny
2) Reduce predation risk
3) Increased feeding efficiency
4) Increased reproductive success