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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (38):

Stream order increases when

two streams of the same order join to form a larger stream


Factors affecting fish distribution

1) temperature
2) Gradient
3) Fluctuation in flow
4) Habitat complexity


How does temperature affect fish distribution

-Warm water (24-26 C) leads to bass, catfish, minnows
-Cold water leads to trout, sculpins


How does gradient (meters drop per km) affect fish distribution

-affects velocity and substrate
-affects daily and seasonal temp
-at lower reaches, converges to a lake-like habitat


headwaters characteristics

-production/respiraction less than 1.0
-Allochtonous carbon


mid-reaches characteristics

-more open, sunlight
-shallow, light reaches bottom
-Autochtonous carbon
-production/respiration >1


Lower reaches characteristics

-open, but deep, turbid
-less light to bottom
-more like a lake
-production/respiration < 1


increasing depth provides:

new niches (more habitat complexity
so species richness will increase


Objectives of the owego creek study

-evaluate fish community change in upper creek between 1963 and 2003-04


Extripations from owego creek study

-redside dace
-Swallowtail shiner


Apparent declines from owego study

-Common shiner
-spottail shiner
-shield darter
-nourthern hog sucker
-white sucker


Why may there have been declines and extraptations of fish in the owego creek

-all 6 reside in the midwaters and can be seen by predators easily
-predator may be the brown trout (from stocking waters)


Why did new fish arrive at owego creek

-these species are orignially from the allegany basin and are expanding their ranges into the owego basin
-greenside darter, banded darter, mimic shiner


Conclusions from owego creek study

-Upper reaches of 3rd order show marked changes with extripations and new invasions
-Trout stocking of 12" browns may be primary cause of changes in minnow population
-Sticklebacks have replaced banded killifish, possibly due to the expansion of rockbass distribution (due to increase in water temp)


Effects of sediment on fish

-spawning disruption
-reduced larval survival, reproduction
-lower foraging efficiency


evidence of spawning disruption from sediment effects

-increased sediment leads to decreased spawning frequency, delayed spawning, and decrease in proportion of ripe eggs


evidence of reduced larval survival and reproduction due to an increase of sediment

-decrease yoy growth rate
-increase in stress enzyme lvl
-decreased spawning success
-increase in gill damage


evidence of lower foraging efficiency due to an increase of sediment

-increase in turbidity leads to a decrease in reactive distance and capture success


what fish is an example of an ulimate cosmopolitan fish

-bluegill sunfish
-adapts wherever introduced


Field evidence for land use effects of fish

1) loss of relatively specialized species
2) spread or persistence of generalized species
3) Faunal homogenization


Increase in deforestation and buildings =

-fewer endemic species
more cosmopolitan species
-species richness increased with land use intensity


How faunas become homogenized

1) Transportation and invasion by non-indigenous spp
2) invaders make the habitat less favorable for endemics (disturbance)
3) gradual replacement of local endemics by widespread generalists


Habitat loss/modification

-dam building


Trawling effects

-big heavy net with steel doors rips apart the sea floor when dragged across
-takes the big fish away from the juvenilles
-mining resources, some of this fish can't reproduce quickly and could extripate them


Channelization effects

-takes habitat away from the fish and gives them a habitat that is not ideal or suitable


Effects of dam building

-changes in river flow, sediment transport, water quality
-changes in fish habitat, quality and productivity
-obstruction in fish migration routes and habitat connectivity
-fish cant swim to where they used to spawn


Why aren't fish ladders useful in most cases

-fish dont use them, and theyre not around long enough for the migration route to pass on to the offspring


Catfish problems with dams

-larvae do not swim to the nursery where they're supposed to go, and instead swim to a different, quite place and stay there
-also catfish are not going past the ladder to spawn
-this fish wont last much longer in the rivers


More impacts of dams

-blocks fish migration
-disrupted flow of sediments and water
-contributes to global warming
-triggers earthquakes


Problems and issues in fisheries management

-Destabilized fish populations
-By-catch, non target species
-Aquarium fishes



-marine protected area
-protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes


Benefits of marine reserves

-protection of habitat
-conservation of biodiversity
-protection of ecosystem services
-recovery of depleted stocks of exploited species
-sites for scientific investigation


MPAs in the beginning were

-extensions of terrestrial protected areas and included for ease of drawing boundaries


MPAs today

-majority are adjacent to coast/close inshore, but some can cover all seas


Why are aquarium fishes a problem in fisheries management

-99% of marine fishes are wild caught (hard to breed due to egg size)
-over 66% mortality rate


Marine reserves network

-set of marine reserves within biogeographic regions connected by larval dispersal
-no-take areas


Global climate change

-ocean acidification
-coral reef bleaching
-sea level increase
-increase in drought and flooding
-changes in community assembly


changes in community assembly due to climate change

-loss of coldwater species, replacement by warm water species
-reduction in range of kelp forests