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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (50):
1

Zone of Proximal Development

distance between the child's individual capacity and the capacity to perform with assistance. functions that are under development

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ZPD stage 1

learner needs assistance, teacher provides it

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ZPD stage 2

assistance only when needed by teacher (static stage), learner is self regulated and uses self talk

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ZPD stage 3

assistance no longer needed, learner becomes great at it, performance becomes automatized

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ZPD stage 4

forget portions or all from before, learner goes back to stage 1, maybe from trauma, stress, self-speech may help them again

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means of assistance performance

modeling, contingency management, feedback, instruction, questioning, and cognitive structuring

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modeling

process of offering behavior for imitation, showing how expecting imitation

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instruction

telling how, reading about it seperately

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feedback

telling learner how they did, corrective on wrong or right, immediate as possible, positive and emotional tone

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Questioning

Assisting and assessing, getting verbal response to know where students are and engaging critical thinkings

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Contingency management


Reinforcement and punishment

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Cognitive structuring

Organizing and using background knowledge

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Skills used for self assisting


Modeling, instruction, contingency management, feedback, cognitive structuring, and questioning

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Self questioning

Ability to question your actions and what you’re doing

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Self praise

Ability to know when you’re doing good and rewarding yourself

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Self regulation

Ability to keep yourself on trackBy focusing your attention controlling your emotions managing your thinking behavior and feelings

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The three memory stores

Sensory, working, long-term

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Sensory memory

Is 100% accurate, info comes from the environment, short duration of less than a second, unlimited capacity

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Working memory

Information not accurate, short duration less than 30 seconds, info comes from sensory memory, info comes from long-term memory, limited capacity

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Long term memory

Info not accurate, permanent storage, info comes from working memory, unlimited capacity

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Information processing model

Sensory input goes to sensory memory from there it goes to working memory and then to there it goes to long-term memory

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Ways to maintain information in working memory

Attention, Chunking, rehearsal,

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Ways to improve efficiency and working memory

Capacity

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Chunking

Containing things into groups

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Rehearsal

Saying it or doing it over and over and over, keep stimulation in working memory longer, deals with time limit

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Automaticity

Do it a lot so it becomes automatic

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Encoding to long-term memory

Working memory encodes into long-term memory where it can be retrieved and go back to working memory

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Importance of meaning

The meaning of certain knowledge to a person can affect their ongoing knowledge

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Schema

Includes all of our knowledge and is organized and can be displayed like a Web

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Disequilibrium


Thinking is out of balance, confused about logic, need it so we are motivated to learn, create curiosity

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Equilibrium

State in which opposing forces or influence are balanced, calm state of mind

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Assimilation

Fitting new information into an existing schema

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Accommodation

Information is so different that you have to either create a new skimmer or greatly alter existing schema

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Classroom management: rules

Involve students, allow students to discuss roles, easier for children to think of singular rules then start to generalize,Reason for rules should be emphasized,

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Classroom management:norms for rules

Safety and health, moral norms, discretionary

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Classroom management: relationships

Heteronomous morality: impedes students self regulation
Autonomous morality: helps students self regulation

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Teaching inverted kids

Assign groups, try pears, don’t insist they always work a new groups, quiet place, quiet exercises, slowly challenge, don’t base participation score and how much do you speak, dim the lights, speak to every student every day

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Teachers introvert

Smaller classrooms, work with team of three or four teachers, refresh after interactions, organization, decompress, exercise

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Teachers extrovert

Patients, give them space, help them express their needs, understand their discomfort, collaboration, give them time, get to know them

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Prevention of cyber bullying

Teach students about integrity, create an apple pie expectations, recognize bullies and victims

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Two important tools for a classroom environment for bulling


Community and relationships

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Creating a safe environment

In the classroom and with contingency management

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Teacher effectiveness and setting clear learning targets

Organization, explanations, examples, guided practices, assessment of student learning, criteria

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Teacher effectiveness and classroom discussion

Students learn from each other, observation formative assessment, mindlessness, facilitator

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Teacher effectiveness and feedback

Written, positive reinforcement, verbal, whole group, student opportunities

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Teacher effectiveness and metacognitive strategies


Students own knowledge and I’m thinking, plan and organize, monitor their own work, self reflect, direct their own learning

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Flipped classroom

Inverts traditional teaching methods, delivery instruction online outside of class in moving homework into the classroom

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Examples of a flipped classroom

Standard inverted classroom, discussion oriented flipped classroom, demonstration focus, photo flips, group best, virtual, flipping the teacher

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Pros of flipped classroom

Student centered, more one on one, teachers student independence, mortgage bit and instruction, Curtis collaboration, ability to repeat the lecture, parents can follow, students with learning disabilities can I better understanding

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Cons flipped classroom

Teacher centered, requires more prep time, distractions and soon environment, poor video video quality, students may not be able to access, or understand, students being unprepared