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Flashcards in Final Deck (34):
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Cognitive processes

Selection, Organization and Integration

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Selection

Paying attention to relevant elements in the presented material

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organization

Constructing internal connections among incoming elements

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Integration

Constructing external connections among representations and prior knowledge

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Contingency Contracting

One application of reinforcement techniques to a classroom situation. Teacher and Student make a contract that specifies which student activities will lead to rewards or punishments

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Contingency Contracting pros

Can improve student performance, must be consistent

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Contingency Contracting Cons

Students could rely on rewards, initiative could be lost if reward is gone, over justification

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Token Economies

earn little rewards that lead up to big rewards, social, material, tokens

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Token Economies Cons

may expect a reward, don't take away something that is earned, Students interpretation of rewards is what matters

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Positive Reinforcement

give something to reinforce good behavior

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Negative Reinforcement

taking away something to reinforce behavior

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Punishment

Taking away or adding something to decrease behavior

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Advanced Organizers

Helps explain info that is already learned, Integration, prevented before learning that helps learner interpret and organize

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Signals

Tells you what is coming next, key terms, highlighted, helps reader create a mental map, Organization

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Adjunct Questions

Inserted questions that reflect known or unknown answers. Gives needed attention to key topics, Selection

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Growth Mindset

people believe that their most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work—brains and talent are just the starting point. This view creates a love of learning and a resilience that is essential for great accomplishment

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Fixed Mindset

people believe their basic qualities, like their intelligence or talent, are simply fixed traits

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Resilience

Being able to pick yourself back up again

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Grit

Being able to reach long term goals

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mnemonic strategies-Selection

association- grouping things that are related
organization- connect into a story
dual coding (keyword)- picture and word
adds meaning when no meaning exists

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Structure Strategies

Creating a schema, in the form of outlines, diagrams, and concept maps. Organization

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Generative Strategies

Leads to understanding fully, summarize, self assessment, answer in your own words

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Learning Strategies

Learning how to learn

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Attribution Theory

Locus (internal and external), Stability (Stable and unstable), Controllability (controllable and uncontrollable)

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Internal

ability and effort

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external

luck and task difficulty

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Stable

ability and task difficulty

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unstable

effort might change and luck

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Controllable

effort

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uncontrollable

luck, task difficulty, ability

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Self-Efficacy

Belief about ability to succeed in a specific skill, activity, etc. 4Ps. "If I won't succeed I won't try

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4ps

past performance, peer modeling, persuasion, psychological state

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intrinsic motivation

doing it cause you want to, internal

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Extrinsic Motivation

doing it for something, external