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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (34):

What are the 7 steps to creating a personal mission statement?

1. Begin with central theme
2. Write the mission statement
3. Refine your mission statement
4. Build excitement and inspire action
5. Get other's input on your mission
6. Make your mission statement visible
7. Revisit and evaluate your mission


What are the stages and definitions of the Trans Theoretical Model?

1. Pre-contemplation: don’t know, don’t care
2. Contemplation: recognize a behavior change would be beneficial, but don’t commit
3. Preparation: Prepare to make a change before committing
4. Action: A plan is established and implemented. Most difficult stage, often leads to regression to previous stages
5. Maintenance: behavior is maintained for about 5 years but requires assessment of the program
6. Termination: behavior has consistently maintained for 5 years and is now incorporated into your life.


What is the most component of fitness for the general population?

Cardiorespiratory endurance


Vigorous exercise is expressed as what?

A level above 60% of maximal capacity


What is VO2 Max?

1. Maximal oxygen consumption of an individual
2. Generally considered best indicator of aerobic fitness


How do you estimate your maximum heart rate?

220 minus your age


How do you calculate your resting heart rate?

Perform a one-minute count while at rest


How do you determine your heart rate reserve?

Max heart rate minus resting heart rate


How do you calculate training intensity for a ten-second count?

(Heart rate reserve x .6) + (Resting heart rate/6)


What is the FITT Principle?

Frequency - how often
Intensity - how hard
Time - how long
Type - aerobic vs anaerobic


What are factors of making a habit of lifetime exercise?

-Set aside regular time for exercise
-Exercise early in the day
-Select aerobic activities you enjoy
-Combine different activities
-Use proper clothing and equipment
-Find a friend or group of friends to exercise with
-Exercise in different places and facilities
-Exercise to music
-Conduct periodic assessments


What are the benefits of strength training?

1. Shapes your body
2. Helps boost fat burning metabolism
3. Builds strong bones
4. Enables endurance
5. Crucial for daily activities
6. Sitting, walking, running, lifting, recreational activities
7. Improves confidence
8. Posture, personal appearance, self-image
9. Helps develop sports skills
10. Promotes joint stability
11. Helps people cope more effectively in emergency situations
12. Helps increase and maintain muscle
13. Promotes psychological well-being
14. Results in higher resting metabolic rate
15. Promotes weight loss and maintenance


What is the link between muscle mass and metabolism?

Muscle is metabolically active, and so each additional pound of muscle tissue increases resting metabolism by 35 calories per day.


What is the most important component of fitness for older adults?

Muscular strength


Define muscular strength

The ability of a muscle or muscle group to generate maximal force


Define muscular endurance

The ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform repeated submaximal contractions or to maintain an isometric contraction


What muscles are included in the "core"?

1. Abdominal muscles
2. Hip Muscles
3. Spinal muscles


Define isometric training

Strength-training method in which muscle contraction produces little or no movement because the person pushes or pulls against an immovable object


Concentric and Eccentric movement involve doing what with the muscles?

Concentric - shortening during contraction
Eccentric - lengthening during contraction


Define circuit training

A technique involving a series of weight-training stations. The weight trainer performs an exercise and rapidly moves to the next station with little or no rest.


List the strength training guidelines

1. Select exercises that will involve all major muscle groups
2. Select exercises that will strengthen the core
3. Never lift weights alone
4. Warm up properly prior to lifting weights
5. Use proper lifting technique for each exercise
6. Maintain proper body balance while lifting
7. Exercise larger muscle groups before exercising smaller muscle groups
8. Exercise opposing muscle groups for a balanced workout
9. Breathe naturally; inhale during the eccentric phase and exhale during the concentric phase
10. Avoid holding your breath while straining to lift a weight
11. Allow adequate recovery time between sets of exercises
12. Discontinue training if you experience unusual discomfort or pain
13. Use common sense on days when you feel fatigued or when performing sets to complete fatigue
14. Stretch (static) for a few minutes at the end of each strength-training session


How is strength training different in women?

1. Does not cause muscle hypertrophy as in men
2. Changes in body composition can lead to reduction in inches but not body weight


Define plyometric exercise

Explosive training incorporating speed and strength training to enhance explosiveness


Define the overload principle

demands placed on a system (cardiorespiratory or muscular) must be increased systematically over time to cause physiological development


Define static stretching

Holding a stretched position


Define dynamic stretching

Moving slowly and rhythmically through a full range of motion


Define ballistic stretching

Moving through a range of motion with bobbing (not recommended)


Define hypermobility

Excessive range of motion


What type of stretching should be done pre workout?

Dynamic stretching


What type of stretching should be done post workout?

Static stretching


What types of stretching are not recommended?



What are the benefits of flexibility?

1. Promotes healthy muscles and joints
2. Improves elasticity of muscles and connective tissue around joints, enhancing freedom of movement
3. Relief of muscle soreness
4. Makes activities of daily living (turning, lifting, and bending) much easier to perform
5. Helps prevent low back and other spinal column problems
6. Improves and maintains good postural alignment
7. Promotes proper and graceful body movement
8. Improves personal appearance and self-image
9. Helps develop and maintain motor skills throughout life


What are factors that affect flexibility?

1. Genetics
2. Physical activity
3. Joint & bone structure
4. Ligament strength
5. Tendons
6. Muscles
7. Tissue injury
8. Adipose tissue (fat)
9. Body temperature
10. Age
11. Gender


How does flexibility affect low-back pain?

It helps