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Synthetic philosophy

Ideas by Herbert Spencer of philosophy based on the idea that homogeneity is involving to heterogeneity everywhere

1

Social Darwinism

The loosely used term referring to social philosophies based on Darwinian evolutionism

2

Creationism

The view that biological species are divinely created and do not evolve

3

Jean Lamarck

Proposition of biological evolution is controlled by traits acquired in one generation and passed to the next generation

4

Vitalism

The idea that biological evolution self-motivated or willed

5

Thomas H Huxley

Compared human and ape skeletons to compile evidence for human evolution

6

Sublimate

Sigmund Freud
We channeling desires into culturally acceptable thoughts and behaviors

7

Imperial synthesis

19th-century synthesis of archaeology racism and colonialism

8

Paleolithic/Old stone age

Characterized by chipped and flaked stone tools, hunting and gathering

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Neolithic

Prehistory characterized by Polished stone tools and the domestication of animals and plants

10

Stone age

Old Stone Age or Paleolithic
New Stone Age or Neolithic

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3 age system

Stone, bronze, and Iron Age

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Criteria of form

The criteria that determines that similar cultural characteristics are the result of diffusion

13

Anthropological geography

Friedrich Ratzel
The study of relationships among geographically contiguous cultures

14

Culture circle
Kulturkreis

The pattern of diffusion of cultural traits

15

Heliocentrism

The diffusion view of cultures that world civilizations arose from sun worship in Egypt and then spread elsewhere

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Psychic unity

The doctrine that all people have the same capacity for change

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Sympathetic magic

Magic that can affect an object through a similar object

18

Polytheism

The belief in multiple deities

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Adhesions

Edward Burnett Taylor
Cultural traits that are significantly associated

20

Survivals

Edward Burnett Taylor
Nonfunctional cultural traits that are clues to the past

21

Anima

An indivisible and diffuse supernatural force that can take the form of souls or ghosts.

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Transmigration

To pass into another body after death

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Armchair anthropologists

Anthropologists that have little to no field work

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Exogamy

The practice of marrying or mating outside one's kinship group

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Polyandry

Marriage between one woman and more than one man

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Female infanticide

The practice of treating male babies more favorable resulting in higher female deaths

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Contract societies

Henry Maine
Societies that stress individualism, hold property in private and maintain control by legal sanctions

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Social societies

Henry Maine
Societies that are family oriented hold property in common and maintain control by social sanctions

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Consanguine

A family type based on a group marriage between brothers and sisters

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Cross cousins

Cousins related through parents of the opposite sex

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Descriptive

A type of kinship system that splits kinship categories

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Classificatory

A type of kinship that merges kinship categories

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Neo-evolutionists

20th century anthropologists who reviewed and reformed 19th century classical cultural evolutionalism

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Classical cultural evolutionism

The theoretical orientation of 19th century cultural evolutionists who uses the comparative method

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Vulgar materialists

A label for cultural materialists who ignore dialectical thinking

36

Structural Marxists

Proponents of a critical blend of Marxism dialectical philosophy and French structural anthropology

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Dictatorship of the proletariat

In the theory of dialectical materialism the temporary phase of political organization leading to permanent communism

38

Labor theory of value

The proposition of Karl Marx that things should be valued in terms of the human labor required to produce them

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Proletariat

The working class in Marxism

40

Dialectical

Friedrich Hegel
Formulation of historical change as proceeding in the form of thesis antithesis and synthesis

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Ruling class

The class that determines the means of production

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Primitive communism

The view that some past people's lived in a state to which future communism will return

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Means of production

How people make a living in the material world

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Materialism

The belief that humans existence determines human consciousness

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Marxism

A collection of views derived from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and their theory of dialectical materialism

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Dialectical materialism

THe philosophy if Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

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Mechanical philosophy

The philosophy inspired by the law of universal gravitation portraying the universe as a complex machine with fine tuned interactive parts.

48

Enlightenment

The period of 18th century intellectual history proceeding the French Revolution

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Mechanics

The medieval science of motion

50

Cosmology

The branch of philosophy concerned with the origin and structure of the universe

51

British empiricism

The scientific epistemology of induction fashioned by philosophers Frances Bacon and John Locke

52

Induction

The process of arriving at generalizations about particular facts

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Positivism

The view that science is objective and value free

54

French rationalism

The intellectual tradition associated with Rene Descartes and the scientific epistemology of deduction

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Cartesian definition

Radical dualism between mind and matter body and soul and subject and object.

56

Deduction

The use of logic to reason from general to particular statements

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Epistemology

The branch of philosophy that explored the nature if knowledge

58

Polygensis

The idea that human races are separate species with separate origins and innate differences

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Monothesis

The idea that human races constitute a single species with a common origin with differences produced Over time

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Natural children

The idea that primitive people are capable of improvement and conversion to Christianity

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Natural slaves

The conception if primitive peoples as innately imperfect and subservient to European Christians

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Antipodes

Opposites or people in opposite sides of the world

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Original son

The Christian idea that early sin resulted in the expulsion of humanity from the garden of Eden

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Tabula rosa

The Ida that the mind acquires knowledge through experience rather than recognizing that knowledge is innate

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Cultural relativism

The proposition that cultural differences should not be judged by absolute standards

66

Dialectical materialism

The philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels called Marxism

67

Social statics

The study of social stability. Auguste Comte believed that social science should enter the positive phrase which included social dynamics and social statics

68

Social dynamics

The study of social change

69

Auguste Comte

Wrote the course of positive philosophy. Believed that all brands of knowledge pass through teleological metaphysical and positive stages.

70

Positivism

The idea of an absolute truth
Auguste Comte

71

Volksgeist

Spirit of the people
According to some early theorists the ethnographic essence of a people

72

Pietistic

Pertaining to piety or religious reverence and devotion

73

Bourgeoisie

The middle class in Marxism

74

Savagery, barbarism, and civilization

Lewis Henry Morgan's three part scheme for the universal evolution of humanity

75

Universal historians

Enlightenment thinkers who prompted laws of human history

76

Comparative method

The use if existent people's to represent extinct primitive peoples

77

Noble savagery

The romanticism of primitive life
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Believed that people were happier in the past.

78

Theistic

The view that god creates the universe and remains active in its day to day operations

79

Deistic

The view that god created the universe but remains relatively uninvolved in its day to day operations

80

Monotheistic

To seek explanationary generalizations and laws

81

Geisteswissenschaften

Human sciences

82

Naturwissenschaften

Natural sciences

83

Southwest school

A group of German philosophies who differentiated human sciences and natural sciences

84

Cephalon index

The measures ratio of head breath to head length used in 19th century racial classifications

85

Historical particularism

Franz Boaz
Historical particularism rhetorical orientation of franz Boaz and many of his students who focused on the histories of particular cultures

86

Salvage ethnography

Ethnology motivated by the need to obtain information about cultures threatened with extinction of assimilation

87

Great man theory history

The theory that individuals affect the course of history more than historical circumstances

88

Super organic

The idea that culture is distinct from and above biology

89

Idiographic

Seeking descriptions or particular events

90

Ethnicscience

The collection of methods used in cognitive anthropology

91

Sapir-whorf hypothesis

Proposition that the structure of language conditions the nature of cultural meaning

92

Diachronic

Historically oriented or concerned with the part

93

Synchronic

Concerned with the present more than the past

94

Parole

F. De Saussure
Reference to language as actually used in speech. Abstract structural system of language or langue

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Langue

Ferdinand de Saussure
Reference to language as an abstract system that can be studied independently of actual speech ( parole)

96

Polysemous

Having more that one meaning or significance

97

Signified

Ferdinand de Saussure
One of the two units making up the sign the concept generated in our minds when represented by a sound or image, the signifier

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Signifier

Ferdinand de Saussure
One of the two units making up the sign the word or image that represents a concept or the signified

99

Sign

Ferdinand de Saussure
The pair formed in the relation of a signifier to a signified, the essence of relations among meaningful units In a language

100

Historical linguistics

The study of language consisting in the reconstruction and descriptive tracking of language genealogies over time

101

Postmodernism

A movement within the social sciences and humanities that questions the possibility of impartiality, objectivity, or authoritative knowledge

102

Political economy

Viewing sociocultural form at the local level as penetrated and influenced by global capitalism

103

Cosmological order

A religious phase describing the nature of otherworldly dieties or powers and their relationships to human beings

104

Rationalized

Max weber
Evolved through systematization of ideas corresponding norms of behaviorism and motivational commitment to those norms

105

Calvinist Protestantism

John Calvin
The Christian doctrines and practices traced to John Calvin that oppose Roman Catholicism on the basis of scripture and justification by faith

106

Charismatic prophets

Max weber
Individuals that experience a revelation that mandate the establishment of new social order based on ethical ideas

107

Inner worldly asceticism

Max weber
The ethical demand of Calvinist Protestantism that Christians not retreat from the world in order to live piously

108

Salvation

Max weber
Escape from Worley capriciousness and evil through social arrangements rationalized in accordance with a divine plan

109

Theodicy

Max weber
Explains how there is evil in the world despite the existence of god.

110

Idealistic

Looking to ideas and meanings rather than materiel conditions as the well spring of a culture

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Agency

Creative acts of intentioned individuals that generate social form and meaning

112

Profane

Routine mundane impure and of the world
Emilie Durkheim

113

Sacred

That which is pure powerful and supernatural
Emilie Durkheim

114

Elementary structures

In French structural anthropology, universal mental logics and their cultural manifestations

115

Anomie

Emilie Durkheim
The sense of personal alienation caused by the absence if familiar social norms

116

Elementary forms

Emile Durkheim
The equivalent of collective representations similar to elementary structures

117

Collective unconsciousness
Group mind

Emile Durkheim
The source if collective representations of social facts

118

Collective representations

Manifestations of the collective consciousness or group mind.

119

Social facts

Emile Durkheim
Social phenomena, units of sociological analysis.

120

Organic solidarity

Emile Durkheim
Social cohesion maintained by differences and inter dependence among individuals.

121

Mechanical solidarity

Emile Durkheim
Social cohesion maintained by similarities among individuals.

122

British social anthropology

The school of structuralism and functionalism led by Alfred Reginald Radcliffe brown and bronislaw Malinowski

123

French structural anthropology

Claude levi-Strauss
Invokes elementary mental structures reciprocity and binary oppositions

124

Reality principle

Sigmund Freud
The principle of realizing that acting on the pleasure principle is dangerous and immature.

125

Primal Patricide

Frued's ideas that that the killing of the father by sons in the hypothetical primeval family

126

Neptunists

Geologists that proposed that the agent if major geological change was the subsidence of water

127

Vulcanists

Thought that major geological changes were caused by the elevation of land brought about by volcanic heat.

128

Carolus Linnaeus

Naturalist who classified the genus homo within the animal kingdom.

129

Swamping effect

The observation that small variations would always by diluted by heredity and therefore could not increase or intensify through natural selection.

130

Biogenetic law

the principle that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny

131

Orthogenesis

The idea that biological evolution operates on one direction and usually leads to Homo sapiens

132

Ontogeny

Biological growth of an individual

133

Phylogeny

Evolutionary growth of a species

134

Teleology

The idea that biological evolution adheres to a long term purpose or goal

135

Pleasure principle

Sigmund Freud
Living as directed by the Id

136

Racial memory

Freud
Subsconsciousness awareness of the history of the human psyche

137

Psyche

Subconsciousness encompassing everything else.

138

Id

Natural desires

139

Ego

Psyche that interacts with the world

140

Superego

Conscience; monitors the Id and mediates between the ego and outside world.

141

Configurationalism

The search for cultural patterns

142

Psychological anthropology

Concerned with the relationship between cultures and personalities

143

Enculturation

The process of an individual acquiring culture especially while growing up.

144

Gestalt

A psychological on figuration attributed by some psychological anthropologists to an entire culture

145

National character

According to certain psychological anthropologists the dominant personality of a nation.

146

Culture at a distance

The study of cultures without fieldwork. Practiced during WWII

147

Variables

Carefully defined units of an analysis that can be manipulated statistically and yield correlations.

148

Freudian anthropology

The school of psychological anthropology incorporating certain elements of the psychology of sigmund Freud

149

Primary cultural institutions

In psycho-dynamics anthropology , institutions that affect how children are raised and that shape basic personality structures.

150

Secondary cultural institutions

Social institutions that are projections of basic personality structures and help people cope with the world

151

Basic personality structure

Core personality shaped by primary cultural institutions and projected onto secondary cultural institutions.

152

Psychodynamic

Pertaining to the school of psychological anthropology that adopted certain elements of the psychology of sigmund Freud. Often called Freudian anthropology.

153

Maintenance systems

The equivalent of primary cultural institutions without Freudian components.

154

Projective systems

Secondary cultural institutions without Freudian components. Model of John whiting and Irvin child

155

Personality variables

Basic personality structures without Freudian components.

156

Niccolo Machiavelli

Lived during the renaissance
Analyzed political power and organization.
Described how things are (not how they should be.)(Plato)
The end justifies the means.

157

Plato

Every person has a specific role in life.
Presented what a republic should look like.
Recorded societies change over time.

158

Aristotle

Plato's student.
Agreed with social change but was more empirical. Beginning of historical particularism.

159

Thomas Aquinas

Believed that natives were imperfect and therefore natural salves.

160

Bartolome de las Casas

Redefined natives to be natural children. Allowing room for Christian salvation.

161

Rene Descartes

I think, therefore I am.
Emphasized doubt and skepticism for tools of thinking.
We have no proof of our existence.

162

Auguste Comte

Created positivism
Believed in theological metaphysical and positive stages of knowledge.

163

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Speculated on human change through time.
Concluded the ideas of noble savagery
Early application of the comparative method.

164

Karl Marx

Dialectical materialism- argues that historical change is occurring in thesis antithesis and synthesis patterns.
Means of production, capitalism, modes of production, and social classes.

165

Edward Burnett Taylor

Coined definition of culture.
Idealist definition
Father of modern cultural anthropology
Adhesions and survivals.

166

Lewis Henry Morgan

Belief in the fundamental shift from savages to barbarism to civilization.

167

True or false
Deduction is an epistemology that refers to the use of logic to reason from general to particular statement s

True

168

Which of these would not be considered an ideal of the enlightenment
Piety
Progress
Reason

Piety

169

Giambattista Vico
Three stages of human development

Gods
Heroes
Men

170

Agitate Comte thought that the social sciences had yet to pass to the positivism stage
True or false

True

171

True or false
Ferdinand de Saussure describes language as a system of signs in which speech communicates

True

172

True or false
According to Saussure a sign which does not communicate meaning to a community of speakers can still be relevant.

False

173

Saussure considered langue to be the most important aspect of linguistic study. Why would the other aspect of parole also be important?

Saussure was more conceded with studying language in its entirety which would be langue.

174

True or false
Saussure emphasized a synchronic study of language

True

175

Darwin

Darwinian evolution
Natural selection.

176

Sigmund Freud

Studied human behavior
Concept of I'd ego and superego
Stages of psychosexuality

177

Charles Lyell

Principle of uniformitarism

178

Emile Durkheim

Mechanical solidarity
Organic solidarity
Group consciousness
Collective consciousness
Social facts.
Elementary forms and structures. Sacred and profane.

179

Comparison contrast between Durkheim and Max Weber

Shared division of labor ideas.
Equality of social classes, where ideas of the world come from

Different because Marxism believed that capitalism would break down and develop into communism.
Marx- conflict between groups
Durkheim - stability of social systems.

180

Max weber

Created the holistic individual that acts on his own. Thought of as ideational and sharply contested with Marxism
Relatively nonprivileged
Religion ritual and salvation.
Inner wordly asceticism
Charismatic prophets

181

Max weber vs. Karl Marx

Weber focused on the importance of the individual and Marx thinks of people as drones.

182

Friedrich Ratzel

Extreme views about diffusionism. Kulturkreis or culture circle

183

Ferdinand de Saussure

Emphasized the synchronic study of language and how it worked as a system of communication.

184

Janice Boddy

Studies myth ritual structuralism and cultural symbolism. Studied women and language systems.

185

Grounded eclecticism

The greatest ethnographic insights come from careful listening and writing to assemble ethnographic data to reveal the analysis they contain.

186

Franz Boaz

Most important anthropologist of the 20th century.
Four field approach.
Co founder of AAA
Historical particularism
Cephalic index

187

Ruth Benedict

Configurationism
Compared three different cultures to determine that culture strongly influenced personality development.

188

Configurationism

Looking for cultural patterns and cultural personalities.

189

Robert Louie

Determined that there is no one determinant of culture.

190

Margaret Mead

Studied young women in Somoa

191

Zora Neale Hurston

Black woman who was a writer turned anthropologist who evaluated her own culture.

192

Ralph Linton

Studied under Boaz
Covered status and roles. Ascribed vs. achieved.

193

British
French outlook

Induction
Deduction