Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

History Of Anthropology > Exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (74):
0

Reciprocity

Marcel Mauss
the elementary principle of exchanging gifts. According to Levi Strauss it is the principle of exchanging women.

1

Binary oppositions

French structural anthropology
The universal logic of dualities.

2

Prague school

A school of linguists based in Prague that pioneered the analysis of phonemes

3

Phonemes

Minimally contrasting pairs of sounds that create linguistic meaning.

4

Restricted exchange

Claude Levi Strauss
The exchange of women between two kinship groups.

5

Generalized exchange

Claude Levi Strauss
The exchange of women among more than two kinship groups promoting greater social solidarity then restricted exchange.

6

Matrilineal cross cousins

Marriage to a child of ones mothers brother.

7

Patrilateral cross cousin marriage

Marriage to a child of ones fathers sister.

8

Oscillating equilibrium

Edmund leach
Term for the continuing existence of social structure. Even against the backdrop of constant social change.

9

Oscillating equilibrium

Edmund leach
The continuing existence of social structure even against the backdrop of constant social change

10

Purity

Mary Douglass
The ideal of a seamless social order symbolically excluding that which threatens a societies basic categories of understanding

11

Pollution

Mary Douglass
Aspects of the world unexplained by a society's basic categories of understanding thereby threatening social order.

12

Formalists

Economic anthropologists who maintained that western economic concepts apply to non western economies.

13

Substantivists

Economic anthropologists who maintained that western economic concepts do not apply to non-western economies.

14

Structure if the conjuncture

Marshall Sahlin
Phrase describing the space of intersection between different cultural structures where contingency produces historical change.

15

Lono

Precolonial Hawaii
A god responsible for fertility and fecundity

16

Solipsism

The idea that the individual self is the only reality and that the external world exists only in one's imagination.

17

Structuralism

British social anthropology
The synchronic concern with social structure, sometimes called social morphology
French social anthropology
The concern withy the elementary forms of minds and cultures.

18

Functionalism

British social anthropology
Alfred Reginald brown--theory of how parts of a society contribute to the whole of a society
Bronislaw Malinowski--theory of how culture responds to biological needs in a hierarchically organized way.

19

Structural-functionalism

British social anthropology
The synchronic concern with social structure and social function.

20

Organismic analogy

Linking society to an organism

21

Social morphology

According to the organismic analogy, the study of social structure.
British social anthropology

22

Social physiology

According to the organismic analogy, the study if social function.

23

Social structure

The social matrix of behavior. Sometimes called social morphology

24

Social function

The contribution of a part of society to the whole of society
Sometimes called social physiology.
British social anthropology.

25

Genealogical method

The method of focusing ethnographic fieldwork on kinship.

William h. R. Rivers

26

Lineages

Multi-generational kinship groups with membership determined by ties to common ancestors

27

Participant-observation

Style of fieldwork requiring the fieldworker to see things both from the native and the fieldworkers point of view.

28

Symbolic anthropology

Victor Turner
E. e. Evans Pritchard
The view that social solidarity is a function of the systems of symbolic logic that connect people.

29

Colonial encounter

Colonial encounter between European colonizers and the indigenous peoples of the world who were then often marginalized or oppressed by colonialism.

30

Rhodes-living stone institute

A research institute in Zambia that conducted much ethnographic research in the final years of browsing colonialism and was later called the Zambian national research institute.

31

Social process

Late structural functionalism idea that social change as the ongoing creation of a fluid, dynamic social structure.

32

Manchester school

Anthropologists trained under max gluckman at Manchester university in the. 50s and 60s.

33

Copperbelt

Max Gluckman did work in the region of central Zambia and the democratic republic of Congo

34

Rituals of rebellion

A phase coined by max gluckman to describe the socially constructive role of ritual in helping avoid real conflict.

35

Descent group

Individuals who perceive themselves to be descended from a real or hypothetical ancestor.

36

Indirect rule

The British colonial policy of co-opting native leaders in order to avoid having to govern by force.

37

Ethnolinguistics

The linguistically orientated research methods of cognitive anthropology

38

New ethnography

A name for cognitive anthropology focusing in the methodologies of ethnoscience and ethnolinguistics

39

Semantic domain

A mental domain of cultural meaning they is the focus of inquiry in cognitive anthropology

40

Componental analysis

A research technique if cognitive anthropologists use to generate good taxonomies of semantic domains.

41

Folk taxonomies

According to cognitive anthropologists, culturally conditioned maps if semantic domains

42

Culturology

Leslie white's name for the monotheistic study of culture.

43

New archaeology

The nomothetic archaeology advocated by Lewis binford.
Also called processual archaeology

44

Phonetics

The study of linguistic sounds that create meaning.

45

Phonemics

The study of linguistic meaning created by sounds

46

Cultural neo-evolutionism

20th century cultural evolutionism, a revival and reformulation of past thoughts.

47

Thermodynamics

The study if conversion if energy in the universe. The fundamental part of culturology as expressed in the second law of thermodrnamics

48

Second law of thermodynamics

The scientific proposition that the universe is running down thereby increasing disorder or entropy

49

Entropy

Disorder in the universe.

50

Thermodynamic law

E x T > P
Energy times technology yields cultural product.
Leslie white

51

Layer-cake model of culture

Leslie white
Model of culture with technology and economy at the bottom, ideology at the top, and social and political organization in between.

52

Cultural ecology

The examination of interactions between cultural and environmental variables

53

Adaption

Variable of cultural ecology
The result of cultures adjusting to environments
Aka. Natural selection

54

Band

The simplest form if human social organization, placed in evolutionary sequence before the tribe, chiefdom, and state

55

Potlatch

A Pacific Northwest native ceremony characterized by conspicuous exchange and consumption of goods.

56

Universal

Pertaining to a single scheme for global cultural evolution; contrasted with miltilineal and unilineal evolution.

57

Multilineal

Max weber
Culture change occurring in fits and starts in different historical contexts.
According to Julian steward, "branching" cultural evolution.

58

Unilineal

Pertaining to the view that cultural evolution proceeds along the same lines everywhere, as in classical cultural evolution.

59

Functionalist archaeology

Archaeology practices in accordance with the theory of functionalism

60

Marxist archaeology

Archaeology practices in accordance with the principles of Marxism

61

Culture-historical archaeology

Archaeology practices in the era if franz Boas's historical particularism

62

Midwestern taxonomic method

The archaeological classification used in cultural-historical archaeology

63

Ethos

A term meaning spiritual character, used by some anthropologists to characterize a whole culture

64

Hypothetico-deductive method

A philosophical model for scientific explanation used in new archaeology

65

General systems

A cybernetic model for culture used in the new archaeology.
Involves feedback loops and positive or system-maintaining and negative or system-changing cause-and-effect chains.

66

Processual archaeology

A name post-processual archaeologists use for nomothetic new archaeology

67

Post-processualists

Archaeologists critical if the new archaeology also called contextual archaeologists

68

Cultural materialism

The theory if Marvin Harris that distinguishes Emic from Etic perspectives and mental from behavioral domains and that advocated infrastructural determinism

69

False consciousness

In the theories of Marxism and cultural materialism, the capability of people to misrepresent the meaning of their behavior to themselves and others

70

Universal pattern

In cultural materialism, the levels if culture-infrastructure, structure, and superstructure with Emic and Etic and mental behavioral dimensions

71

Infrastructural determinism

Marvin Harris theory of cultural materialism. The name for the belief that culture change usually begins in the Etic infrastructure

72

Idealists

According to Marvin Harris, followers of cultural idealism. The misguided belief that culture change usually begins in the Emic superstructure

73

Eclectics

According to Marcia Harris , anthropologists who are sometimes culture materialists and other times cultural idealists