Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

American History > Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (89)
Loading flashcards...
1

nation-state

political society that combines centralized government with ethnic and culture unity.

2

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World. Sailed from Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506)

3

Where did Columbus land?

Bahamas and Caribbean at one point

4

Vasco Nunez de Balboa

Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama

5

Amerigo Vespucci

The italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him

6

Amerigo Vespucci sail from

Spain

7

Amerigo Vespuccis destination was

South America

8

Dates of America Vespuccis sailing

1499-1502

9

the protestant reformation

A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.

10

The lost colony of Roanoke

1587 .. a small colony was founded on an island off the eastern coast of North America. The settlement is the first English colony of the new world

11

PERSIA

political, economical, religious, social, intellectual, artistic

12

Mercantilism

an economic theory .. nations power is based on wealth

13

economics

production distribution, consumption of goods, services in a free market system

14

Republic

A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting

15

Democracy

A political system in which the majority of people rule

16

Presentism

an attitude toward the past based on your experiences today

17

disinterestedness

free from self interest ... have no personal advantage in a question or affair. (Judge)

18

the development of large nation states in Western Europe helped ....

spark foreign trade and travel outside the region.

19

New England Colonies

Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire

20

Hartford was founded by ... in ....

hooker in 1636

21

Rhode Island was founded by

Roger Williams in 1636.

22

Rhode Island was the first colony to

promote religious freedom

23

New Hampshire was founded by

John Wheelwright in 1638

24

Massachusetts was founded by

John Winthrop in 1630

25

who controlled the middle colonies

the dutch

26

Middle Colonies

New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware

27

Who founded Pennsylvania?

William Penn in 1682

28

Maryland Act of Toleration

1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.

29

Southern Colonies

Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

30

create/procreate -> ................................... -> move to a new area

consume // natural resources available

31

Mason-Dixon Line

1767, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon complete their survey of the boundary between the colonies of Pennsylvania and Maryland

divider between free and slave states before the Civil War

32

joint-stock company

Short-term partnership between multiple investors to fund a commercial enterprise; such arrangements were used to fund England's early colonial ventures.


Partnership between investors to fund commercial enterprises

33

Virgina Company of London

English joint-stock company that received a charter from King James I for setllement in the New World whose main attraction was gold. Their charter guaranteed to overseas settlers the same rights they would have enjoyed if they had stayed home.

34

Jamestown

First PERMANENT English settlement in North America. May 1607

35

when settlers arrived at Jamestown

Dozens of people died from disease, starvation

36

First Anglo-Powhatan War

(1614) series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia. English colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England's campaigns against the Irish

37

Second Anglo-Powhatan War

(1644-1646) Last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement.

38

First Anglo-Powhatan War sealed with

the marriage of Pocahontas and colonist John Rolfe.

39

John Rolfe became the father of the tobacco industry and...

the economic savior of the Virginia colony

40

Tobacco did what for Jamestown

Saved Jamestown. it put Virginia on firm economic foundations.

41

Solitary neglect

Englands policy that lead to the growth of self government in the colonies and caused the colonies to become used to acting independently (do your own thing but don't bother me)

42

House of Burgesses

1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.

43

Virginia company sends 90 women from England to do what

tie the men down

44

In ......., the Virginia courts had sentenced one of the first black indentured servants to slavery.

1640

45

in 1660.. what happened in America

Slavery became legal in America

46

Bacon's Rebellion

A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land

47

What drives capitalism?

profit

48

Spanish Armanda

1588
Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel.....
MARKED THE BEGINNING OF THE DECLINE of the Spanish EMPIRE

49

Barbados slave code

1661
Denied the rights to slaves and gave masters complete control over there slaves. Harsh punishments started

50

Buffer

A territory between two powers to minimize conflict. In British North America Georgia with established as a buffer colony between British and Spanish territory

51

Yamasee Indians

Defeated by
South Carolina in the war 1715 - 1715
This defeat devastated the last coastal Indian tribes in the southern colonies

52

Tuscarora War

1711-1713

Began on Indian attack on new bern, NC.

After tuscaroras were defeated, Indian survivors went northward joining the Iroquois confederacy the 6th nation.

53

Squatters

Farmers who illegally occupied land.
NC were squatters

54

Primogeniture

Legal principle that the rest son inherits all family property or land

55

Spanish Armada

1588
Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel.

This defeat marked the beginning of the decline of the Spanish empire

56

Calvinism

Dominant theological credo of the New England Puritans based on the teachings of John Calvin.

Calvinists beloved in predestination — that only “the elect” were destined for salvation

57

Puritans

English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds.

Devout Puritans believed that only visible saints should be admitted to church membership

58

Predestination

Calvinist doctrine that god has foredained some people to be saved and some to be dammed.

59

Conversion

Gods free gift of saving grace.... those who has this experience were expected to lead “sanctified” lives demonstrating holy behavior that they were amount the visible saints

60

Separatists

Small group or puritans who sought to break away from the Church of England after the king said the saints have to share the pews with the dammed

61

Mayflower compact

1620
Agreement to form a majoritarian government in Plymouth signed aboard the mayflower.

Created a foundation for self-government in the colony

62

Massachusetts bay colony

1630

Established by non-separating puritans, it grew to be the largest and most influential of the New England colonies

63

Great English migration

1630-1642
Migration of 70k refugees from England to the north American colonies primarily new England and the Caribbean. the 20,000 migrants who came to Massachusetts largely shared a common sense of purpose establishing a model of Christian settlement in the New World.

Those who went to the Caribbean liked the warm and fertile West Indies especially the sugar rich Barbados

64

Anne Hutchinson

Held unorthodox views that challenged the authority of the clergy 1591-1643

She created antinomianism then got banished. She traveled to Rhode Island by foot and moved to NY where she was killed by Indians

65

Antinomianism

Belief by Ann Hutchinson that the elect doesn’t have to obey the law of either god or the man.

66

Fundamental Orders

1639
Drafted by settlers in the Connecticut River Valley this document was the first modern constitution establishing a democratically controlled government

67

Pequot War

1636-1638
Series of clashes between English settlers and Pequot Indians in the Connecticut River Valley this ended in the slaughter of the Pequot by the Puritans

68

King Phillips War

1675-1676

A series of assaults by king Phillip on English settlements In New England..

This attack slowed the westward migration of the New England settlers for several decades

69

English Civil War

1642–1651

Armed conflict between royalist and parliamentarians resulting the victory of pro parliament forces and the execution of Charles I.

After this the New England confederation came.

70

New England confederation

1643

4 colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut led by puritans for the purpose of defense against enemy’s such as Indians, French, Dutch.


Also to solve problems such as runaway servants and criminals.

71

Dominion of New England

1686-1689
Was imposed from London and designed to snitch England’s overseas objects more tightly to the motherland by throttling American trade with country’s not ruled by the British crown.

This was placed under sir Edmund Andros. He taxed without consent and enforced navigation laws

72

Glorious Revolution

1688-1689 —-
Peaceful overthrow of the unpopular catholic monarch king James II who was replaced with Dutch born William III

73

Navigation laws

Series of laws passed in 1651 to regulate colonial shipping.

Only English shops would be allowed to trade in English

Colonial ports and all goods destined for the colonies would have to pass through England

74

Patroonships

Tracts of land along the Hudson River in new Netherlands granted to wealthy promoters in exchange for 50 settlers to the property

75

Blue laws

Also - sumptuary laws

Designed to restrict personal behavior in accord with a strict code of morality

Padres in Puritan New England and Quaker Pennslyvania

76

indentured servants

when the tobacco was growing in the Chesapeake Bay, they needed people to work.

migrants who worked for a colonial employer for a term of service in farms in exchange for transatlantic passage and an axe, a few barrels of corn, a suit of clothes, and sometimes a small piece of land.

77

headright system

employed in the tabacoo colonies to encourage the servants. who ever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire 50 acres of land

78

Royal African company

Lost it’s monopoly to Cary slaves to colonies. After this the supply of slaves rose

79

Middle passage

Voyage that slaves went through between Africa and the colones. Death rates were high

80

Slave codes

Set of laws in 1662 defining racial slavery. Limited rights and education to slaves

81

Congregational church

Self governing Puritan church and democracy

82

Half way covenant

Agreement allowing uncovered offspring or church members to baptize their children.
It signified a waning of religious zeal among 2nd-3rd generation puritans

83

Salem witch trials

1692-1693
Series of witch craft trials launched after a group of girls in Salem mass claimed to have been bewitched by older women of the town. 20 people died

84

Leislers rebellion

1689-1681
New York


Wealthy colonist attempted to re create European social structure in the new world

85

South Carolina slave revolt

1739 ( Stono River)

50 South Carolina blacks on the stono River. Attempted to reach Spanish Florida but were stopped by the South Carolina military

86

Triangular trade

Exchange of rum slaves and molasses between the North American colonies, Africa and the West Indies.

87

Molasses act

1733
Tax on imported molasses passed by parliament in effort to make money off the North Americans Thrace with French West Indies.

Ineffective due to wisdespread smuggling

88

Great awakening

Religious revival that swept the colonies
1730s 1740s

89

why did the bacon rebellion happen

bacon was angry by Berkeleys mild Indian policies and economic grievances.