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1

3 categories of popular music

-popular
-classical
-folk

2

American pop music grew out of 3 distinct musical traditions

-art music of Central Europe (classical music)
-Folk music of the British isles
-West African music

3

American pop music is important in at least 3 ways

-culturally
-commercial sales
-artistical expression

4

most musical sounds have 4 properties

1) timber
2) intensity
3) pitch
4) Duration

5

definite pitch

any instrument you can sing back
-ex: piano

6

elements of popular music

1) instrumentation
2) preforming style
3) dynamics
4) rhythm
5) melody
6) Harmony
7) texture
8) form

7

inflection

the note to note dynamic shading of singer or instrumentalist

8

chord

group of pitches heard at the same time

9

arpeggio

notes of a chord in a series/ breaking apart chords

10

instruments of pop music fall into 5 groups

1) rhythm
2) winds
3) strings
4) percussion
5) electronic instruments

11

tempo

defines speed of the beat

12

measure

beats grouped into longer rhythmic units

13

two features have defined the sound of rhythm in American pop music

1) rhythm section
2) backbeat

14

riff

short melodic idea

15

form of music

-AABA
-Verse/ Chorus

16

sources of popular music

1) Central European heritage
2) Settlers from England, Ireland, Scotland
3) African slaves

17

melisma

series of pitches sung on the same syllable

18

source of pop music from Central European heritage

Central European music in America regins from Italian opera to German lieder

19

source of pop music from England, Scotland and Scotland

settles brought a rich folk tradition with them like fiddle, folk, banjo

20

source of pop music from African slaves

almost exclusively visual

21

pentatonic scale

5 note scale

22

call and response

the regular alternating of 2 contrasting sounds

23

what 2 traditions have been the crucial factors in the creation of pop music

1) European traditions
2) African music traditions

24

songs of the 1850's had 2 distinct qualities

-very popular
-sound home grown

25

3 important improvements in piano design

1) Babcock developed single piece iron from for an upright piano
2) Chickering applied cast iron frame to a grand piano
3) Steinway combined iron from with over strung bass strings

26

what instrument did most people learn to play

piano

27

most people learned songs from

sheet music which was the primary means of distributing popular songs well into 20th century

28

Stephen foster

most important song written in 19th century popular music

29

parlor songs and example

-are intended primarily of home use
-"gene with he light brown hair"

30

strophic form

when same melody serves several stanzas of text