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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (44)
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1

Argument

Has premises and conclusion

2

Valid argument

not possible for premises to be true and conclusion to be false

3

Inductive strength

indication of how well premise supports conclusion. Matter of evidence, not form

4

Can a valid argument have a false conclusion?

Yes.

5

Argument with inconsistent premises are

Valid

6

Simple sentence

1 subject, 1 predicate

7

Truth Functional compound sentence

truth value is determined by value of simple sentences that make up the compound sentence.

8

Biconditional Truth Table: Which are True?

TT and FF

9

Single Arrow Truth Table: Which are False?

T to F

10

Neither Nor

---| (A v B)

11

Both And

---| (A ^ B)

12

What does it mean if truth value is a model for sentence S?

If sentence is always true on that tva.

13

Truth functionally true sentence

always true regardless of the combination of truth values assigned to its components. True on every tva.

14

Truth Functionally consistent

A least 1 truth value assignment on which all members of a sentence are true (1 row on truth table)

15

Truth Functionally Equivalent

no tva on which their truth values differ. In other words, for two sentences P and Q, they are models of each other.

Example: For truth table A, B, A v B, B v A, always have same values

16

Truth functionally false

False on every truth value assignment

17

Truth functionally contingent

TVA of sentence depends on value of components

18

Truth functionally consistent

1 row for which all sentences in set are true. Note: does NOT have to be simple sentences

19

Sound argument

If argument is valid AND all premises are true

20

Counterexample

all T premises and F conclusion

21

Logical true/tautology

not possible to be false

22

Logically false

not possible for statement to be true "self contradiction"

23

Logically equivalent

same truth value, not possible fore them to have different truth values

24

Logically contradictory

only if not possible for statements to have same truth value

25

Logically consistent vs. inconsistent:

Is it possible fore all statements in set to be true?

26

X if Y

Y --> X (opposite of if then)

27

Whenever/Given/Assuming X, Y

X --> Y

28

X is SUFFICIENT for Y

X --> Y

29

X only if Y

X --> Y

30

X is NECESSARY for Y

Y --> X (opposite)