Exam 1: Ch 1 Flashcards Preview

Cellular and Molecular Biology > Exam 1: Ch 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1: Ch 1 Deck (46):
1

charles darwin

natural selection: organisms vary randomly and compete within their environment for resources

2

what are genes?

strands of DNA that code for proteins

3

mutation

an alteration in the structure and organization of a gene

4

metazoan definition

multicellular animal

5

water accounts for how much of a cell's volume?

75%

6

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

cell's primary source of energy

energy stored in two of its chemical bonds

7

ADP

adenosine triphosphate

8

photosynthesis

plants and some organisms harvest energy from the sun

9

proteins are commonly made of how many aas?

100-1000

10

enzyme

protein that catalyzes chemical reactions without being consumed or changed

11

cytoskeletal proteins

structural components of a cell that form an internal skeleton

also power movement of structures using ATP

12

when did Watson & Crick propose the structure of DNA

60 yrs ago

13

2 regions of genes

coding region: aa sequence of a protein

regulatory region: binds specific proteins and controls when and in which cells the protein is made

14

how many genes do humans have

~ 20,000-23,000

15

transcription

coding region of a gene is copied into mRNA by RNA polymerase

16

RNA polymerase

large enzyme that catalyzes that linkage of nt into RNA using DNA as a template

17

translation

ribosome reads mRNA and translates a protein

18

transcription factor

DNA-binding proteins that alter gene expression

19

what are phospholipid bilayers impermeable to

water

ions

hydrophillic small molecules

20

4 kingdoms of eukaryotes

plants

animals

fungi

protists

21

5th and 6th kingdoms

bacteria

archae

22

model organisms

systems in which the study of cellular function and development serve as a model for other species

23

bacteria basics

1-2 micrometers

plasma membrane, cell wall (peptidoglycan) cytoplasm, circular DNA chromosome, ribosomes in cytoplasm, mesosome (invagination)

24

gram neg/pos

neg: inner cell wall & outer membrane separated by periplasmic space

pos: thicker cell wall and no outer membrane

25

archae extreme conditions?

yes

26

eukaryote basics

10-100 micrometers

plasma membrane, organelles, membrane enclosed nucleus, mitochondria (chloroplasts in plants)

27

lysosome

organelle with a lower pH 5.0

break down parts of the cell into small molecules

28

cytoskeleton

gives cell strength and rigidity

cell shape

29

cytoskeleton fibers

microtubule: 20nm, protein tubulin

intermediate filaments: 10nm, rod-shaped subunits

microfilaments: 7nm, protein actin

30

cell-adhesion proteins

animal cells are glued together

31

basal lamina

tough matrix of proteins and polysaccharides

forms a supporting layer underlying cell sheets and prevents cell aggregates from ripping apart

32

plasmodesmata

cytoplasmic bridges in some plants

33

endothelium

layer of endothelial cells

prevent blood cell from leaking out of vessels

34

protostomes

develop a mouth close to a transient opening in the early embryo (blastopore)

have a ventral nerve chord

worms insects mollusks

35

deuterostomes

develop an anus close to this transient opening in the embryo

have a dorsal central nervous system

echinoderms and vertebrates

36

patterning genes

specify the general organization of an organism beginning with major body axes

conserved in both protostomes and deuterostomes as master transcription factors

eyeless in fruit flies and pax6 in humans are genes for eye development

37

virus

protein coat covering a core of genetic material

38

evolution

genetic change in a population over time

through evolution all organisms are related in a family tree

39

which isomer of aas are found in proteins

L, not D

40

mesosome

bacterial invagination of cell membrane associated with synthesis of DNA and secretion of proteins

41

peptidoglycan

complex of proteins and oligosaccharides that make up the cell wall of bacteria

42

E. coli as a model organism

grow rapidly, possess mechanisms for controlling gene regulation

have proteins involed in DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis

43

peroxisome

small organelle specialized for breaking down lipid components of membranes

44

endoplasmic reticulum

organelle that produces, processes, and ships proteins and lipids

usually ship to golgi complex

45

golgi complex

organelle that modifies proteins and lipids before transporting to final destination

46

yeast as a model organism

identification of many proteins that regulate cell cycle and catalyze DNA replication/transcription

grow easily and clones have same genes and biochemical properties