Exam 1- evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 1- evolution Deck (56):
1

Groups are the same

Null Hypothesis

2

Groups are different

Alternate Hypothesis

3

Most influential geologist adopting deep time

Charles Lyell

4

-Studied fossils of France
-Recognized that Earth had many mass extinctions
-Most species that have lived are already extinct

George Cuvier

5

Suggested that life evolves; argued evolution is the refinement of traits that equip organisms to perform successfully in their environment

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

6

"An Essay on the Principle of Population"; Populations will not grow forever (will be held in check by famine or disease)

Thomas Malthus

7

Individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than others because of those traits

Natural Selection

8

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time

Population

9

Change in gene frequency over time

Evolution

10

What is the 'random raw material' component of evolution?

Mutations

11

What is the mechanism/process that converts the random raw material into complex evolutionary change?

Natural selection

12

Evidence of evolution? (6)

1. Direct observation
2. Fossil record
3. Biogeography
4. Comparative anatomy
5. Comparative embryology
6. Molecular biology

13

The study of the geographic distribution of species

Biogeography

14

Comparison of body structure among species, ancestral structures become modified for new functions

Comparative Anatomy

15

Early stages of development reveal relationships

Comparative Embryology

16

Similar structures occur in different evolutionary branches, results from natural selection acting similarly

Convergent Evolution

17

Structures shared due to common ancestry

Homology

18

Structures that are similar but not due to common ancestry

Analogy

19

Main causes of evolutionary change? (3)

Genetic drift, gene flow, natural selection

20

Change in the gene pool of a small population due to chance
-Decreases overall genetic variability in a population because some alleles are lost

Genetic Drift

21

A few individuals become isolated, allele frequencies differ by chance

The Founder Effect

22

A sudden reduction in population size (big>small population)

The Bottleneck Effect

23

The transfer of alleles from one population to another, can gain or lose alleles, reduces differences among populations

Gene Flow

24

Form of natural selection where certain traits help to obtain mates

Sexual Selection

25

Natural selection in which individuals at one end of the phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do other individuals

Directional Selection

26

Natural selection in which individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than those with intermediate phenotypes

Disruptive Selection

27

Natural selection in which intermediate phenotypes survive or reproduce more successfully than the extreme phenotypes

Stabilizing Selection

28

5 conditions for non-evolving populations that are rarely in nature?

1. No mutations
2. Random mating
3. No natural selection
4. Extremely large population size
5. No gene flow

29

Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared with homozygous ones

Heterozygote Advantage

30

Selection in which the fitness of a phenotype depends on how common the phenotype is in a population

Frequency Dependent Selection

31

A group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring
Trends: genetics, evolution, ecology

Biological Species Concept

32

The existence of biological factors (barriers) that impede members of 2 species from producing viable, fertile offspring

Reproductive Isolation

33

Two species that occupy different habitats within the same area may encounter each other rarely, if at all, even though they aren't isolated by obvious physical barriers (e.g. mountains)

Habitat Isolation

34

Species that breed during different times of the day, different seasons, or different years cannot mix their gametes

Temporal Isolation

35

Species have different mating behaviors

Behavioral Isolation

36

Mating is attempted, but anatomy differences prevent its successful completion

Mechanical Isolation

37

Sperm and egg don't fuse
-Sperm might not be able to survive vaginal conditions (may be the wrong pH)
-Surface proteins on sperm and egg may not match

Gametic Isolation

38

The genes of different parent species may interact in ways the hybrid doesn't survive in its environment

Hybrid Inviability

39

Hybrids can't breed

Hybrid Sterility

40

Even if the first generation can produce offspring, the next generation are not as successful

Hybrid Breakdown

41

Species that look alike
-But are clearly separate species
-No gene flow

Cryptic Species

42

A population forms a new species while geographically isolated from its parent population

Allopatric Speciation

43

A subset of a population forms a new species without geographic separate

Sympatric Speciation

44

Natural selection strengthens prezygotic barriers to reproduction, thus hybridization selected against

Reinforcement

45

Weakening reproduction barriers
-"Species" can merge back together
-"They fuse back together to form a species"

Fusion

46

Continued formation of hybrids
-Gene flow from outside the hybrid zone can overwhelm other factors
-Hybrid zone persists

Stability

47

A sudden change

Punctuated Pattern

48

Appear to have changed more gradually over a long period of time

Gradual Pattern

49

Definition of a species in terms of physical traits

Morphological Species Concept

50

Definiton of species based on use of ecological resources

Ecological Species Concept

51

Definition of a species based on sharing a common ancestor separate from others

Phylogenetic Species Concept

52

Structures that evolve in one context but become co-opted for a different function

Exaptations

53

Evolutionary change in the timing or rate of an organism's development

Heterochrony

54

Sexually mature species retain juvenile body features
-Sexual maturity is faster than somatic development

Paedomorphosis

55

Big evolutionary change can result from changes in genes that control the placement and organization of body parts

Homeotic Genes

56

Class of homeotic genes that provide positional information during development
-Highly conserved over evolutionary time

Hox Genes