Exam 3 biodiversity part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 biodiversity part 2 Deck (102):
1

bottom side

ventral

2

top side

dorsal

3

Two sided symmetry

Bilateral Symmetry

4

"Traditional" jelly fish

Medusa

5

Segmented worms
Eucooelomate worms
Trochophore larvae
Bodies composed of a series of fused rings
Examples: Polychaetes- large group of marine worms; free swimming, tube worms
Leeches, earthworms

Phylum Annelida

6

Symmetrical in various ways passing through the middle

Radial Symmetry

7

Have ectoderm and endoderm
-Phylum cnidaria

Diploblastic

8

Innermost germ layer-lines the digestive tube, called the archenteron

Endoderm

9

Order from cell to organism?

cell>tissue>organ>organ system>organism

10

A clublike structure, short term diploid stage in life cycle

Basidium

11

What yields haploid spores?

Meiosis

12

Symbiotic associations between fungi and land plants
-Mycorrhizal fungi deliver phosphate ions and minerals to plants
-Most vascular plants have these

Mycorrhizae

13

Fungi's nutrition? (mixotroph heterotroph, photoautotroph?)

Heterotroph

14

Molluscs
Euceolomate
Soft bodied animals, but most are protected by a hard shell
Life cycle usually includes a ciliated larval stage called a trochophore
Examples: snails, slugs, clams, oysters, squids, octopodes, nautiluses

Phylum Mollusca

15

Other lophotrochozoans go through a developmental stage

Trochophore Larva

16

Largest group of fungi
Diverse
-e.g. cup fungi, morels, unicellular yeasts
-Includes plant pathogens, symbionts, decomposers
Produce sexual spores in saclike asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps (commonly called sac fungi)

Ascomycetes

17

Decomposers, parasites, or mutualists
Have flagellated spores
One species incredibly destructive amphibian parasite
-Amphibian extinction ~200x background

Chytrids

18

Fusion of haploid nuclei to create diploid zygote, a short-lived cycle

Karyogamy

19

Union of the cytoplasm
-nuclei co-exist at first--heterokaryotic stage

Plasogamy

20

What stage is dominant in fungi?

Haploid

21

Long strings of tissues
-cluster together into mycelia
-the "mushroom" is a very small part of total fungus

Hyphae

22

Fungi form mutualistic relationships with? (3-4)

Plants, animals, algae or cyanobacteria

23

-Fungi and Nuclearids
-Animals and Choanoflagellates

Opisthokonta

24

Fungi's diverse lifestyle?

Decomposers, parasites, mutualists

25

Many of the familiar types of fungi (mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, plant parasites, mycorrhizae)
Many are decomposers
Defined by a clublike structure (basidium)
AKA "club fungi"
Life cycle usually includes dikaryotic (n+n) mycellium
Mycellium reproduces sexually by producing fruiting bodies (e.g. mushrooms)

Basidiomycetes

26

In Domain Eukarya, multicellular, usually motile, do not have a cell wall, heterotrophs

Kingdon Animalia

27

Algae supply food, Fungi provide environment

Lichens

28

Move via flagella
Have a "collar" around flagella (flagella creates currents that trap bacteria in collar)
When bacteria are numerous, individuals come together to form colonies
Look almost identical to collar cells in sponges and similar cells scattered across Kingdom Animalia

Choanoflagellates

29

Live in marine or fresh waters
Lack true tissues or organs
Suspension feeders
Usually hermaphrodites
Specialized cell types (choanocytes: feeding, water flow)
Sponges

Phylum Porifera

30

? lack true tissues
-Minimal specialization of cells
-Cells can change types

Sponges

31

Live on ocean water

Benthic

32

Head

Anterior

33

"upside down" jelly fish

Polyp

34

Small, flat marine worms
Acoleomate
Early diverging bilaterians

Phylum Acoela

35

Are humans closer related to a starfish or crab?

Starfish

36

Have ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

Triploblastic

37

The development of a head

Cephalization

38

Tail end

Posterior

39

Flatworms
Acoelomate worms with a single mouth/anus opening
Gas exchange takes place across the surface
Triploblastic
Free living species (e.g. Planaria)
Parasitic species (e.g. Flukes, tapeworms)

Phylum Platyhelminthes

40

Germ layer covering the embryo's surface

Ectoderm

41

E.g. Lampshell
Eucoelomate
Superficially resemble clams (very different looking animal side)
Very important fossils (especially Paleozoic)
Lophophore (crown of ciliated tentacles surrounding mouth)

Phylum Brachiopoda

42

Some lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called...

Lophophore

43

Cleavage is radial (cells aren't rotated after division)
Indeterminate (cells aren't faded to become specific tissues--identical twins)
Mesoderm forms from folds of archenteron
Anus develops from blastospore

Deuterostome

44

An asexual fungal spore produced by budding

Blastospore

45

Cleavage is spiral (cells rotated after division)
Determinate (each cell is fated to become specific tissues)
Mesoderm forms near blastospore
Mouth develops from the blastospore

Proteostome

46

Shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis

Ecdysozoans

47

Roundworms
-Found everywhere
-Free living and parasitic species
Pseudocoelomates
Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in research
-Have fixed number of cells (~1000)
-Determinate growth=fate of all cells can be mapped
-Feed on bacteria

Phylum Nematoda

48

Euceolomate
Hugely successful (2/3 of all animal species)
Segmented body, jointed appendages
Hard exoskeleton
-Made of chitin, molts exoskeleton as it grows
Open circulatory system- haemolymph circulates through blood vessels and body cavity
4 subphyla: Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, Hexapoda

Phylum Arthropoda

49

Claw-like feeding appendages (called chelicerae)
Horseshoe crabs and sea spiders are marine
Biggest group of chelicerates are arachnids- terrestrial

Subphylum Chelicerata

50

Scorpions, ticks and mites, Daddy-long-legs, spiders
8 legs
Gas exchange via book lungs
2 body segments- abdomen, cephalothorax

Arachnids

51

Mainly repeated segments
Millipedes
-2 pairs of legs per segment
-Feed on decaying plant matter
Centipedes
-1 pair of legs per segment
-Carnivorous

Subphylum Myriapoda

52

Largely marine and freshwater environments or coastal areas
Varied number of legs
Largest group= Decapoda (10 legs)
Examples: crabs, lobsters, pill bugs, shrimp, barnacles, Planktonic- copepods, brine shrimp, daphnia

Subphylum Crustacea

53

Evolution of light?

insects

54

More species than all other animal phyla combined
Insects and their wingless relatives
Live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in fresh water
Insects= evolution of light
New data indicates they evolved from within crustaceans

Subphylum Hexapoda

55

Eucleomate deuterostomes
Penta-radial symmetry as adults (no head- can be divided along 5 axes)
Bilateral symmetry as larvae
Thin epidermis covers endoskeleton of hard plates
E.g. starfish, sea urchins, brittlestars, crinoids, sea cucumbers

Phylum Echinodermata

56

Fate of all cells can be mapped

Determinate Growth

57

Kingdom Animalia, True tissue, Triploblastic, Bilateral symmetry, Eucleomate, Deuterostomes

Phylum Chordata

58

Characters of chordates? (4)

Notochord
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
Pharyngeal Slits
Muscular Post-Anal Tail

59

Flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord, provides support, replaced by skeleton in vertebrae adults

Notochord

60

Develops from ectodermal tissue, develops into the central nervous system (brain and spine)

Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord

61

Grooves in pharynx
Functions: suspension-feeding structures in many invertebrate chordates, gas exchange in fishes, develop into parts of the ear, head, and neck in tetrapods

Pharyngeal Slits

62

Tail that extends past the anus, can be reduced in adults

Muscular Post-Anal Tail

63

Small marine suspension feeders, retain characteristics of the chordate body plan as adults, lancelets

Subphylum Cephalochordata

64

Tunicates
Adults look like bags of water
-Filter feeders
-Intake and excurrent siphons
Larval stage looks like a chordate

Subphylum Urochordata

65

Characters of vertebrates? (4)

Vertebrate enclosing a spinal cord
Brain enclosed in a skull
Heart with 2 or more chambers
Red blood cells with hemoglobin

66

Have a cartilaginous skull
Have axial rod of cartilage derived from the notochord
Lack jaws and vertebrae
Mostly bottom-dwelling scavengers

Hagfishes

67

Jawless vertebras
Feed by clamping their mouth onto a live fish
Have cartilaginous segments surrounding the notochord and partly over the nerve chord

Lampreys

68

Have jaws that evolved from supports of the pharyngeal slits
Genome duplication, including duplication of How genes
Enlarged forebrain
-Enhanced smell and vision
Lateral line system (in aquatics)
-Sensitive to movement in water

Gnathostomes

69

Skeleton of cartilage
Sharks, rays, ratfishes
Cartilaginous fish

Class Chondrichthyes

70

"chondro"

cartilage

71

"ichthys"

fish

72

"Bony fish"
Have bony skeleton
Tetrapods and bony fish
-Fish are paraphyletic
-Tetrapods evolved from bony fish
Have a swim bladder, lungs, or similar structure
-Used for breathing, buoyancy, or both

Osteichthyes

73

Fins supported by long, flexible rays, most successful fishes

Ray-Finned Fish

74

Muscular pelvic and pectoral fins (or limbs)
3 lineages: Coelacanths, Lungfishes, Tetrapods

Lobe-Fins

75

Characters of tetrapods? (5)

4 limbs, and feet with digits
A neck
Fusion of pelvic girdle to the backbone
Absence of gills as adults (with exceptions)
Ears adapted to detecting airborne sounds

76

Most have moist skin that aids in gas exchange
Frogs, salamanders, caecilians
Fertilization is external in most species
Gelatinous eggs require a moist environment
Metamorphosis of an aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult
Means "both ways of life"

Class Amphibia

77

Characters of amniotes?

Amniotic egg (allowed them to reproduce on dry land)
Dry, relatively impermeable skin

78

Contains membranes that protect the embryo

Amniotic Egg

79

Have scales that create a waterproof barrier
Usually lay shelled eggs on land
Most are ectothermic, birds are endothermic

Class Reptilia

80

Absorbing external heat as the main source of body heat

Ectothermic

81

Capable of keeping the body warm through metabolism

Endothermic

82

Have a boxlike shell made of upper and lower shields
-Fused to skeleton

Turtles

83

2 closely related species of lizard-like animals in New Zealand

Tuatara

84

Lizards and snakes, very successful group, snakes evolved from lizards

Squamates

85

Crocodilians belong to a lineage that dates back to the early Mesozoic

Crocodiles and Alligators

86

Characters of birds? (5)

Flight, Wings, Feathers, Loss of teeth, Hollow bones

87

Characters of mammals? (5)

Mammary glands (which produce milk), hair, a high metabolic rate and endothermy, large brain, differentiated teeth

88

Egg-laying mammals

Monotremes

89

Give birth to live young very early in development

Marsupials (pouched animals)

90

Have advanced placenta and give birth to more developed young

Eutherians ("Placentals")

91

Human's Kingdom?

Kingdom Animalia

92

Human's Domain?

Domain Eukarya

93

Characters of primates? (4)

1. Complex social behavior and parental care
2. Grasping hands and feet
3. Large brain and small jaws
4. Forward looking eyes closer together on the face (helps with depth perception)

94

Known only from finger bones and teeth from Siberian caves
40,000 years ago
Related to Neanderthal
Genetics indicate it hybridized with H. sapiens (Melanesians and Australians have some DNA [<5%])

Denisovans

95

Species in Europe and Middle East
Survived until 30,000 years ago
Close relative of H. sapiens (diverged 500,000 years ago)
Genetics suggests it interbred with H. sapiens (all non-Africans contain DNA [<3%])

Homo neanderthalensis- Neanderthal

96

Evolved from H. Erectus
Small (~3 ft tall)
Found on an island in Southeast Asia
Survived until 13,000 years ago

Homo floresiensis- "Hobbit"

97

Human's species name?

Homo sapiens

98

Human's genus?

Genus Homo

99

Human's family?

Family Hominidae

100

Human's order?

Order Primates

101

Human's class?

Class Mammalia

102

Human's phylum?

Phylum Chordata