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Flashcards in Exam 1: Introduction Stuff Deck (46):
1

Provide a brief history of hematology.

Hematology: the study of blood

In the 1600s, Leeuwenhoek was the first to discover blood cells in the microscope.

2

Blood makes up ___% of body weight.

About 7 -- 8%

A 150-pound person would have about 12 pounds of blood.

3

The average adult has ___ liters of blood, aka ___ pints in the olden days.

4 -- 6 liters

9 -- 11 pints

4

Average amount of blood in adult females

4 -- 5 liters

5

Average amount of blood in adult males

5 -- 6 liters

6

Normal pH of blood

pH 7.35 -- 7.45

7

General % of components in plasma/serum

91% water
7% protein
2% electrons, hormones, etc.

100% reason to remember the name

8

In a microscope slide, what is the normal ratio of:

RBC : WBC : PLT

500 : 1 : 30
RBC : WBC : PLT

9

Describe the contents of a centrifuged tube of blood, from top to bottom.

55% pale yellow
- plasma or serum

10

What is the difference between plasma and serum?

Plasma
- anti-coagulated substance
- add a chemical (ex: EDTA) during collection process

Serum
- coagulated substance
- allowed to clot

11

How big are normal RBCs?

About 7 -- 8 microns

12

Briefly describe the appearance of normal RBCs.

- orange-pink
- no nucleus
- biconcave discs, uniform in size and shape

13

What is the main function of RBCs?

Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide

14

What is the normal range of RBCs?

4.2 -- 6.1 x 10^12 / liters

4.2 -- 6.1 x 10^6 / microliters

4,200,000 -- 6,100,000

15

If a patient has a very high amount of RBCs, he/she is considered to have ___.

Polycythemia

16

If a patient has a very low amount of RBCs, he/she is considered to have ___.

Anemia

17

How big are normal PLTs?

About 2 -- 4 microns

18

Briefly describe the appearance of normal PLTs.

- dark purple
- no nucleus
- chunks, irregular sizes

19

What is the main function of PLTs?

Hemostasis/clotting

20

What is the normal range of PLTs?

150 -- 450 x 10^9 / liters

150 -- 450 x 10^3 / microliters

150,000 -- 450,000

21

If a patient has a very high amount of PLTs, he/she is considered to have ____.

Thrombocytosis

22

If a patient has a very low amount of PLTs, he/she is considered to have ___.

Thrombocytopenia

23

How big are normal WBCs?

About 8 -- 18 microns

24

Briefly describe the appearance of normal WBCs.

- nucleus is dark purple
- cytoplasm could be either:
# pink-orange
# blue
# blue-gray

25

What is the main function of WBCs?

Immune system responses

26

What is the normal range of WBCs?

4.5 -- 10.5 x 10^9 / liters

4.5 -- 10.5 x 10^3 / microliters

4,500 -- 10,500

27

If a patient has a very high amount of WBCs, he/she is considered to have ___.

Leukocytosis

28

If a patient has a very low amount of WBCs, he/she is considered to have ___.

Leukocytopenia

29

If a patient has 7.8 RBC, he/she has ___.

Polycythemia

30

Old people can appear to have ___ because of dehydration.

Polycythemia

31

If a patient has 2.8 RBC, he/she has ___.

Anemia

32

If a patient has 750,000 PLT, he/she has ___.

Thrombocytosis

33

If a patient has 90,000 PLT, he/she has ___.

Thrombocytopenia

34

If a patient has 14,000 WBC, he/she has ___.

Leukocytosis

35

If a patient has 500 WBC, he/she has ___.

Leukocytopenia

36

What is the stain used to perform CBCs?

Wright Stain
- poly-chromatic stain
- former stain = Romonosky Stain

37

What are the components of the Wright Stain?

Methylene Blue
- alkaline/basic stain
- stains acidic components
- color: blue/purple

Eosin
- acidic stain
- stains the basic components
- color: pink/red

38

Why does the Eosin stain make a pink/red color?

It makes a pink/red color because of hemoglobin.

Hemoglobin is a protein, which is basic.

39

What is the pH of the buffer of the Wright Stain?

pH 6.4 -- 6.7

40

What color appears more when the Wright Stain pH is too acidic?

Pink/orange appearance

41

What color appears more when the Wright Stain pH is too basic?

Blue/black appearance

42

How are WBCs estimated manually?

- use HPF (high-powered field)(40x)
- count # in 10 fields/10 (average count)
- multiply average count x 2,000

43

How are PLTs estimated manually?

- use oil field (100x)
- count # in 10 fields/10 (average count)
- multiply average count x 20,000

44

What does a CBC look like?

WBC (total)
- Neut %
- Lymph %
- Mono %
- Eos %
- Bas %

RBC (total)
- Hgb
- Hct
- MCV
- MCH
- MCHC
- RDW

PLT (total)
- PDW

45

Which part(s) of the CBC indicates the health, size, and shape of RBCs?

- MCV
- MCH
- MCHC
- RDW

46

Which part(s) of the CBC indicates the size and shape of PLTs?

PDW