Exam 1: Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

Molecular Biology L-211 > Exam 1: Lecture 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1: Lecture 1 Deck (27):
1

Eukaryote

-has nucleus that houses genome of cell and provides a compartment for several cellular functions

2

Genome

-refers to the full complement of chromosomes
-somatic human cell genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes
-22 pairs autosomes, 1 pair sex

3

Process in Nucleus

-DNA replication
-correction of replication errors
-repair damaged DNA
-transcription (gene regulation)
-RNA splicing
-RNA editing

4

Processes in Cytoplasm

-translation (mRNA to protein)
-protein modification
-energy production
-signal transduction (cell surface to nucleus)

5

DNA Replication

-mistakes happen every so often that encodes for wrong amino acid-->later complications, so processes have evolved to fix these mistakes

6

Transcription

-differentiates between cells
-genes kept on/off different for each type of cell

7

RNA Splicing

-exons only thing that are helpful for coding proteins so introns are spliced out

8

RNA Editing

-enzyme comes trhough -->diversity

9

Babylonian Times

-if child born with birth defect it was killed
-if second child born with same birth defect the parents were killed
-suggests understanding that parents contributed to physical traits of offspring

10

Israeli Talmud

-Rabbis forbade circumcision of male if two elder brothers bled to death because of the procedure
-did allow male cousins to be circumcised under similar conditions
-suggested understanding of hemophilia being transmitted from mother to son (X linked)

11

Alcmaeon

-first person to dissect bodies for research
-developed Theory of Pangenesis

12

Theory of Pangenesis

-males and females create "pangenes" in every organ
-these genes moved through the blood to genital sand on to children
-blood-relative derived from this theory

13

Hippocrates

-Hippocratic Oath
-proposed that "seeds" were produced in every organ and transmitted to off spring during intercourse

14

Aristotle

-thought that male and female "semen" mixed during intercourse

15

Theophrastus

-propose that male flowers cause female flowers to ripen

16

2nd Century Greeks

-used water and filled glass spheres to magnify things

17

Magnifying Glasses

-first described by Seneca and Pliny the Elder in 1st century AD

18

First Microscope

-produced in 1590 by Zaccharis Janssen and Hans Lippershey, Dutch spectacle makers
-put forward principles that are now the basis of all madern light microscopes and telescopes
-developed first compound microscope-->object magnified twice, once by objective lens and second by viewing lens

19

Anton Leeuwenhoek

-built improved microscope and humans were able to see bacterial cells, yeast cells, and circulating blood cells

20

Robert Hooke

-coined term "cell" when looking at plant tissue

21

Cell Theory

-developed by Matthaid Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
-all living organisms made of cells
-cells are the smallest living things (know now isn't true-->viruses and bacteriaphages)
-new cells arise from existing cells

22

Germ Plasm Theory

-disproves Theory of Pangenesis
-developed by August Weismann
-cut tails off mice and mated them together for 22 generations and none of progeny had missing tails
-concluded that hereditary material could not come from each organ or tissue but must come from within a germ cell

23

Blending Theory of Inheritance.

-idea is than value of any single inherited trait could only be within the upper and lower values of the same trait that were established by the two parents
-short individual mates with tall individual, progeny would be intermediate height
-disproved by Mendel's pea plant experiment

24

Gregor Johann Mendel

-mated phenotypically different pea plants and analyzed the physical appearance of progeny
-progeny contained traits that were similar to either parental plant

25

Law of Independent Segregation

-refers to the behavior of alleles of the same gene
-Mendel’s experiments with pea plants indicated that an individual only transmits one copy of each gene to each offspring. Thus the two copies of a gene segregate (or separate) from each other during transmission from parent to offspring.

26

Law of Independent Assortment

-refers to the segregating behavior of alleles of 2 different genes
-only applies to genes located on different chromosomes

27

Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance

-proposed by Walter Sutton
-this theory connected Gregor Mendel’s statistical laws of heredity with studies of the mitotic and meiotic cell cycle
-also proposes the traits are controlled by genes and that these genes are located on chromosomes. and that each chromosome will contain more than one gene