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Flashcards in Exam 1 Material Deck (39):
1

osteokinematic motion

occurs when any object forms the radius of an imaginary circle about a fixed point

2

Axes of the body

3 reference axes are used to describe human motion: frontal, sagittal, and longitudinal
the axis around which the movement takes place is always perpendicular to the plane in which it occurs

3

Frontal Axis of the Body

perpendicular to the sagittal plane
includes flexion, extension, hyperextension, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

4

Sagittal Axis of the Body

perpendicular to the frontal plane
abduction, adduction, lateral flexion of the trunk, evelation and depression of the shoulder girdle, radial/ulnar deviation of the wrist, inversion/eversion of the foot

5

Longitudinal axis of the Body

aka vertical axis
perpendicular to the transverse plane
rotation of the head, neck and trunk; internal/external rotation of the arm/leg; adduction/abduction of the arm or thigh; pronation/supination of the forearm

6

Arthrokinematic movements

motions occurring at joint surfaces
3 types of movement generally occur at articulations:
roll, spin, glide

7

close-packed position

the end of travel in a joint whereby the surfaces are at maximum congruency, ligaments are taut, and further movement in that direction of travel may result in dislocation and/or fracture

movement toward the close-packed position of a joint involve an element of joint compression

8

open-packed position

the position of travel of a joint away from the close packed position where the capsule and ligaments are not taut
extreme movement in that direction usually results in sprain/strain

9

force

a vector quantity, with magnitude, direction, and point of application to a body

10

load

the type of force applied

11

stress

the force per unit area that occurs on a cross section of a structure in response to an externally applied load

12

strain

the deformation that occurs within a structure in response to externally applied loads

13

hysteresis

the difference in behavior of a tissue when it is being loaded versus unloaded

14

creep

when a load remains, and a connective tissue is subjected to a sustained stress, the collagen fibers realign in the direction of stress and water/proteoglycans are displaced from between the fibers
once creep occurs, the tissue has difficulty returning to its initial length

15

Plastic Deformation

occurs when a tissue remains deformed and does not recover its prestress length

16

Ligamentous Injury

grade 1- painful, but not unstable or swollen
grade 2- incomplete tear with mild laxity and instability
grade 3- severe, complete disruption the ligament with gross instability and laxity, loss of function

17

Tendons

connects muscle to bone
causes of a tendon injury center around microtrauma to the tendon tissue due to repetitive mechanical loading from external factors

18

tendinosis

a degenerative process of the tendon

19

tendinitis

implies an inflammatory reaction to a tendon injury

20

Concave- convex rule

each joint/articulation involves two bony surfaces, one that is convex and one that is concave

21

when the concave surface is fixed:

and the convex surface moves on it, the convex surface rolls and glides in opposite directions

22

when the convex surface is fixed:

and the concave surface moves on it, the concave surface rolls and glides in the same direction

23

Aching pain

muscle, tendon, ligament

24

Bounding pain

vascular, circulation

25

burning pain

nerve root, arterial

26

cramp

muscle

27

Boring, deep pain

cancer, bone pain

28

unrelenting deep pain

cancer, visceral

29

dull pain

musculoskeletal, visceral

30

gnawing pain

ulcer

31

well delineated, radiating pain

nerve (causalgia- burning pain from peripheral nerve)

32

diffuse radiating

sclerotogenous or myogenous

33

sharp/localized pain

facet, visceral referred

34

stabbing pain

visceral

35

shooting pain

nerve root, entrapment

36

tearing pain

anuerysm or severe sprain

37

throbbing pain

vascular, circulation

38

segmental tingling

nerve root, peripheral nerve

39

non segmental tingling

bilateral: cord compression, MS, diabetes
unilateral: plexus