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Flashcards in The Hip Deck (84):
1

The hip joint is classified as

ball and socket joint

2

How many planes of motion does the hip joint move in?

3
Sagittal (flexion/extension)
Frontal (abduction/adduction)
transverse (internal/external rotation)

3

All three axes of hip motion pass through

the center of the femoral head

4

Os Coxa is made up of

three individual bones
ilium, ischium, pubis

5

Acetabulum

site where the ilium, ischium, and pubis fuse together

6

A majority of acetabular development is completed by

the age of 8

7

Acetabular rim

aka labrum
deepens the acetabulum thereby increasing the stability of the hip joint

8

The whole of the acetabulum is covered with hyaline cartilage except

the fovea capitis

9

The pelvic girdle is composed of which three joints

hip (acetabularfemoral)
sacroiliac
public symphysis

10

Iliac crest contusion

contusion to the site of or an avulsion of the quadratus lumborum and or abdominal muscles from the crest
very painful/disabling if periosteum is involved

11

With an iliac crest contusion, Patient experiences:

pain when laterally flexing away from the side of injury
pain with abduction of both legs together in side-lying position

12

Bucket handle fracture

superior and inferior public rami fractures with a separation or fracture of the contralateral SI joint

13

Sprung Pelvis

separation of the pubic symphysis and both SI joints

14

Straddle Fracture

bilateral superior pubic rami and ischopubic fractures

15

Most common areas for pelvis avulsion fractures

ASIS
AIIS
Ischial Tuberosity

16

Femur

Strongest and longest bone in the body

17

two thirds of the femoral head is covered in

a smooth layer of cartilage except for the fovea capitis

18

The fovea capitis is the attachment for what?

ligamentum teres

19

Inclination angle

angle between the femoral shaft and neck
approximately 125- 130 degrees

20

The inclination angle in a tall person is

valga
larger

21

The inclination andle in a short person is

vara
smaller

22

Femoral Head dislocation

dashboard injury to the knee will cause a posterior hip dislocation if the hip is adducted at the time of injury

23

the greater trochanter

serves as the insertion site for several muscles that act on the hip joint

24

the lesser trochanter

located on the posterior-medial junction of the neck and shaft of the femur
created from the pull of the iliopsoas muscle

25

angle of Anteversion

the angle that the femoral neck makes with the acetabulum

26

normal angle of anteversion

8-15 degrees

27

Femoral Anteversion

aka medial femoral torsion
the angle between femoral neck and the transcondylar axis is greater than 15 degrees

28

What type of gait do you see with femoral anteversion

toe-in gait

29

Increased medial femoral torsion leads to

OA
dysplasia of the acetabulum
susceptibility to anterior femoral dislocation
knee joint misalignment problems
patellar dislocations
excessive lumbar lordosis
external tibia rotation
foot pronation

30

Femoral retroversion

aka lateral femoral torsion
the angle between the femoral neck and the transcondylar axis is less than 15 degrees

31

why type of gait fo you see with femoral retroversion

toe out

32

lateral femoral head torsion may lead to

low back/SI pathologies
internal rotation of the tibia
supination of the feet

33

Legg-calve-perthes disease

avn of the femoral capital epiphysis before closure of the growth plate

34

Who predominately experiences legg-calve-perthes diseaes

males (5:1)
ages 3-12

35

Four stages of Legg-Clave-Perthes disease

avascularization
revascularization
repair
deformity

36

Primary causes of Legg-Calve-Perthes

trauma
hereditary
nutritional
circulatory

37

which test will be positive with Legg-Calve- Perthes?

trendelenberg

38

Legg-Calve Perthes is bilateral in what percentage of cases?

10

39

How do the odds of experiencing Legg-Calve-Perthes change with a smoker's household?

change of experiencing this pathology increases from 1 in 1200 to 1 in 100

40

Three extra-articular ligaments in the hip

iliofemoral ligament of Bertin/Bigelow
Pubofemoral Ligament
Ischiofemoral ligament

41

Iliofemoral Ligament

made up of two parts: inferior(medial) portion and a superior(lateral) portion
strongest ligament in the body

42

Which muscle does the iliofemoral ligament blend with

iliopsoas

43

Pubofemoral Ligament

blends with the inferior band of the iliofemoral and pectineus muscle

44

Ischiofemoral ligament

winds posteriorly around the femur and attaches anteriorly, strengthening the capsule

45

What hip ligament in most commonly injured?

ischiofemoral

46

All extra-articular hip ligaments tighten with:

hip extension

47

the lateral band of the iliofemoral ligament limits:

adduction

48

the medial band of the iliofemoral ligament limits:

external rotation

49

the pubofemoral ligament limits

abduction

50

the ischiofemoral ligament limits:

internal rotation

51

Iliopsoas

the most powerful of the hip flexors

52

iliopsoas is made up of:

iliacus and psoas major

53

Pectineus

adducts, flexes, and internally rotates the hip

54

Rectus femoris

combines the movements of hip flexion and knee extension

55

Tensor fascia latae

assists in flexing, abductiong, and internally rotating the hip

56

Sartorius

the longest muscle in the body
responsible for flexion, abduction, and external rotation of the hip as well as some degree of knee flexion

57

Gluteus maximus

largest and most important extensor and external rotator of the hip

58

gluteus medius

main abductor of the hip

59

anterior portion of gluteus medius

flexes, abducts and internally rotates the hip

60

the posterior portion of gluteus medius

extends and externally rotates the hip

61

Gluteus minimus

the major internal rotator of the femur

62

Some causes of weak gluteus medius muscles?

fracture of the greater trochanter
slipped capital femoral epiphysis
congenital hip dislocation
poliomyelitis
meningomyelocele
L5 nerve root lesion

63

Slipped femoral capital epiphysis

slipping of the neck of the femoral head as the head remains in the acetabulum

64

Who most commonly experiences a Slipped femoral capital epiphysis

tendency to be with overweight adolescents
adolescents 10-15
more males than females
more black than white
left hip more then right

65

who would you see a bilateral Slipped femoral capital epiphysis in?

females

66

What is the common etiology with a Slipped femoral capital epiphysis

trauma 50% of the time

67

What will you see on xray with a Slipped femoral capital epiphysis

an alteration in klein's line

68

Piriformis

an external rotator of the hip at less than 60 deg
at 90 deg of hip flexion, piriformis reverses its action and becomes an internal rotator/abductor of the hip

69

Small external rotators

obturator externus and internus
superior and inferior gemelli
quadratus femoris

70

Hamstrings

made up of biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus

71

Action of biceps femoris

extends the hip, flexes the knee, and externally rotates the tibia

72

action of semimembranosus and semitendinosus

extends the hip, flexes the knee, and internally rotates the tibia

73

Hip adductors

adductor magnus, longus, and brevis, and the gracilis

74

Iliopsoas bursa

aka iliopectineal
located under the inguinal ligament, between the iliopsoas tendon and the iliopectineal eminence of teh superior pubic ramus

75

What commonly causes inflammation of the psoas bursa?

O/A of the hip

76

Where is the subtrochanteric bursa?

between the greater trochanter and the TFL

77

Borders of the femoral triangle

the inguinal ligament, adductor longus, and the sartorius

78

the floor of the femoral triangle is formed by

portions of the iliopsoas and pectineus

79

The posterior gluteal region receives innervation by way of:

the subcostal, iliohypogastric nerves and the dorsal rami of L1 L2 and L3 and the cluneal nerves of S1 S2 and S3

80

Normally the sciatic nerve passes

inferior to the piriformis muscle (88% of people)

81

The external iliac artery becomes the femoral artery as it passes underneath

the inguinal ligament

82

the branches of the femoral artery

lateral femoral circumflex artery
medial femoral circumflex artery

83

The lateral circumflex artery supplies

anterior portion of the of the femoral neck and the anterior hip joint capsule

84

the medial femoral circumflex artery supplies

perforates and supplies the posterior hip joint capsule and synovium