Flashcards in Exam 1 Material Deck (80):
Have to accommodate for customers tastes/trends/wants
Non-commercial (other name and define)
On-site or institutional: goal is not profit or food service. They have other goals like healthcare in mind but still serve food
On site examples
Hospital, schools, long term, congregate meals?
How does the demand in on-site change?
Time of year- flu season
Special events planned
Less people in hospitals around holidays
No school in summer or weekends
If a form of food purchased is raw what has to happen?
More labor and it is low on the Food Processing Continuum since it has to be prepared (fresh raw carrots versus personal pkg of baby carrots)
Challenges in On-site FS
Types of FS systems (5)
Conventional (on-site), centralized, ready prepared, assembly serve, combination system
Conventional FS system: example/ good and bad?
West haven- cook and serve in same building
Pro: freshly served food, recipe flexibility
Con: more labor costs, food costs low control with bad or changing menus
Centralized: example good and bads?
ISU Dining Bakery: one kitchen makes food, holds it frozen/chilled/or hot, then sends to receiving kitchen to serve it.
Pro: can use USDA foods and equipment well, high control, lower labor costs, choose when to produce food, quality and inventory controlled
Con: high investment, transportation, monotonous jobs, food safety, employees don't see customers
Ready-Prepared: example, pro and cons?
Place that cook chill or cook freeze in bulk
Pro: flexibility in production schedule, low labor costs
Con: limited menu (only freeze able), perceived loss of food quality, can't use fresh produce
Assembly-serve: example, good and bad
A cafe on campus: Buy convenient and pkg food then serve them
Pro: low labor and equipment
Bad: high food cost, lower quality and food variety, small menu
Combination System: example, good, and bad
ISU campus= conventional dining centers with centralized bakery and for soup in cafes and assembly serve in cafes
Good: breaks monotony, high food quality and variety, works well with how the specific system needs to function
Parts coordinated to accomplish set of goals
Organized collection of interrelated elements in a boundary and functional unity
4 characteristics of systems
- within an environment
- made of subsystems
- have central purpose/goal
- focus on interrelatedness among subsystems
3 parts of basic system
5 levels to a system
Macro system: digestive system
System: small intestines
Components: hormones, channels
Policy made...what part of system is this?
School Health Policies and Practices
Goal to improve the environment of school nutrition.
Part of the environment of school system
Examples of inputs
Human, materials, facilities
Labor, food, supplies, energy, technology, money, physical environment
Parts of transformation process
Tasks- required skills
People- expectations, values, needs
Structure- organization, menu controls, finances, recipes, forecasting
Processes- leadership, decision making, planning, relationships, problem solving
Parts of outputs
Food and labor costs, quality and quantity of food, food safety, quality of service, employee and customer satisfaction, job turnover, operation growth
Menu, planning, budgets, standard recipes, forecasting
Customer satisfaction, did you meet the budget?
Parts of a system relying on each other
Parts of the system sharing the same goals and objectives of entire organization
Parts working together to make more impact than parts working alone
Point where the system meets the environment (waitress serving food to public)
5 management functions
Doing the right things
(Are we making what out people want?!)
Doing the right/correctly
Do we have a process that lets us meet our quality and quantity goals?
Total Quality Management (now CQI- continuous quality improvement)
Decreased managerial levels, everyone gives input
To work with PERSON or GROUP to achieve something
School cook works with kids, parents, and school board
Taking action when monitoring and seeing something wrong
Definite predictable direction of events that impacts:
Social, political, or economy
Characteristics of Trends
Peaks later and longer
Never comes back down to base
Net change is seen and realized
Returns to base
No net change realized
Examples of trends talked about
Local foods, sustainability, plate waste reduction, scratch cooking, move from cost to
Cost versus profit center
Cost- need more money than you are making
Profit- either make money or break even (schools)
Increase revenue and decrease expenses and hold acct
What is the Lesley case?
Violation of disabilities act when Lesley university did not acknowledge celiac disease and accommodate it
Difference in training
Hospitals with less LOS so restaurant style LTC
Drivers of sustainability movement?
Increase small farm business
Environment and economic concerns
Need to educate children
International food safety concerns
(Misconceptions- organic=healthy, local=less fuel, local foods=reverse obesity)
2 reasons for procurement policies in purchasing?
Make sure farm is approved supplier- GAPs
Meet food safety concerns
Make sure paying methods are fully understood and delivery
2 terms used in sustainable procurement?
3rd party buyers- don't go right thru farm (food hub)
GAP- good agricultural practices
FSMA- food safety modernization act
Product specs- producer needs to know what buyer needs
Onsite Benefits and challenges to buying from local sources?
Good: smaller cases, promote local and regional economy, unique products, good marketing aspect, fresh and safe food
Bad: not always available, more labor and COSTs, hard to order, not reliable supply, too many vendors, safety/liability
Most vulnerable area for food safety when buying local
In the preparation and retail phase (not farm, processing, or consuming)
Strategic management definition
Systematic analysis of in and ex environment to provide basis for making best management practices. Goal: better alignment of organization policies and strategic priorities.
Strategic planning definition
Process of envisioning organizations future and develop procedures and operations that achieve it.
4 types of planning
Tactical- day to day: no show
Short term- 2 week to month: staffing
Long term- 1-3 years
Strategic- 5 years or when something changes
Key words in management definition:
Systematic- way of analysis
External environment- customers and competition
Internal environment- organization
AND strategic plan uses....
Vision, mission, goals, then strategies
ISU strategic plan uses....
Mission, vision, priorities then goals
Why organization exists
(Statement- guides values and how to meet goals)
What an organization wants to become
What an organization wants to accomplish over long period of time
Concrete, specific statements on how you plan to accomplish goals
Very precise plan to achieve goals and objectives and using resources wisely
Concepts with strategic planning
Strategic and systematic process
SWOT (type of environmental scan)
A situational analysis
Strength, weakness, opportunities, threats
Process of making plan
Get resources / budget
Try strategies - implement
Evaluate and alter strategies/goal
3 things a mission statement should be
What should a strategy of organization try to align with?
Should try to align with macro system goals, too!
What is marketing?
Managerial process, Broad
Plan, execute conception, price, promote, and distribute goods/services to satisfy organization
What is the marketing concept?
Figures out customer needs and wants
Organizations primary objective
What is merchandising?
Specific activity of promoting the sales of goods/products.
Market research, advertise, product development, selling
(High fashion scarf on model)
What is the target market?
The group of people who need the product/good and are willing to pay for it.
What are market segments?
Dividing the total target market into smaller groups with similar product/service needs
Why should we determine a specific target market?
Makes marketing more efficient
Better need/want understanding of the group
Easier to choose correct promotions (social media for gen Y)
What is the marketing mix?
Mix of 4 controllable marketing variables that organizations uses to meet selling goals.
What components make up the marketing mix?
Product- anything that might satisfy want or need (menu or service option)
Price- amt of money charged for good
Place- location and how things are sold
Promotion- how you communicate with customer to increase awareness (advertise)
What 2 components of the marketing mix does merchandising fall under?
Place (on end of aisle or in health market) and promotion (how it is advertised)
General steps of marketing cycle?
Find customer/target market
Develop needed product
Customer buys it
Monitor buying patterns
--> money goes for cycle again
AND 4 standards of excellence?
AND SOPP? (Guidelines for behaviors)
Quality in practice
Competency and accountability
Provision of services
Application of research
Communication and app of knowledge
Utilization and management of resources
What type of measures are used for product quality?
Test trays for temp, taste, appearance, portions, accuracy of what is served.
What type of measure is used for service quality?
Subjective - surveys, customer perceptions
Meal rounds- ask people how the service, food, menu was.
2 types of management in on- site and do they impact quality?
Self-operated versus contracted
Customers usually can't tell. Both can provide good or bad quality products and services.
Compare apples to apples within an organization and with similar ones using quantitative comparison.
Types of measures used in benchmarking?
Meal equivalents (IP, OP, late trays, meals on wheels)
- EMP: estimated meal price of typical lunch
- EMC: estimated meal cost of typical lunch.
Plain meals are not a good measure.
Full time equivalent. Usually the equivalent of 40 hours worked.