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Flashcards in Exam 1 Part 2 Deck (207):
1

Name given to modification of anterior tubercle of C6 transverse process

Carotid tubercle

2

Name given to superior margin of costotransverse bar

Sulcus for ventral primary ramus

3

Usual condition for caucasian typical cervical spinous process

They are bifid

4

Usual condition for African-American typical cervical spinous process

They are NOT bifid

5

Osseous modification at distal end of spinous process

Spinous tubercle

6

Surface features present on superior epiphyseal rim of vertebral body of C7

Anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

7

Appearance of inferior surface of vertebral body of C7

Typically flat, lacks anterior and posterior lips

8

Osseous parts of transverse process of C7

Costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process

9

Features of spinous process of C7

Long, horizontal, nonbifid

10

Outline of vertebral body of T1 from superior view

Somewhat rectangular w/ curved anterior margins

11

Appearance of superior surface of vertebral body of T1

Somewhat cup-shaped w/ elevations at posterior and lateral margin

12

Appearance of inferior surface of vertebral body of T1

Typically flat, lacking anterior and posterior lips

13

What surfaces are present on upper and lower margins of T1 vertebral body

Right and left superior costal facet
Right and left inferior costal demi-facet

14

What is present on transverse tubercle of T1

Transverse costal facet

15

Angulation of spinous process of T1

Nearly horizontal

16

What features will allow discrimination between T2-T4 and T5-T8

Vertebral body, transverse process, articular process and spinous process

17

Outline of vertebral body of T2-T4 from cranial view

Vertebral body will have bilaterally convex sides

18

Outline of vertebral body for T5-T8 from cranial view

Left side of vertebral body will be flattened, right side convex

19

Name given to left side appearance of vertebral body of T5-T8

Aortic impression

20

Part of vertebral body most influenced by aorta at T5-T8

Left side superior and inferior epiphyseal rims

21

Synovial joint surfaces present on vertebral body of a typical thoracic

Right and left superior and right and left inferior costal demi-facets

22

Distance between transverse tubercles in typical thoracic region

From T2 each transverse diameter becomes shorter as transverse processes angle more posterior

23

What is present on transverse tubercle of typical thoracic

Transverse costal facet

24

Orientation of transverse costal facets for T2-T6

Face forward and outward

25

How do transverse diameters of articular processes compare in T2-T4 region

Superior articular process transverse diameter is greater than the inferior articular process transverse diameter

26

Transverse diameters of articular processes compare in T5-T8 region

Superior articular process transverse diameter is the same or equal to inferior articular process transverse diameter

27

Name given to region between superior and inferior articular process in typical thoracics

Pars interarticularis

28

Part of vertebra arises laterally from pars interarticularis

Transverse process

29

Part of vertebra arises medially from pars interarticularis

Lamina

30

Orientation of spinous process of typical thoracic

Slant backward and downward

31

Which vertebrae have spinous process angulation of up to forty degrees

T2-T4

32

Which vertebrae have a spinous process angulation of up to 60 degrees

T5-T8

33

Synovial joint surfaces present on vertebral body of T9

Right and left superior costal demi-facets
Right and left inferior costal demi-facets

34

Synovial joint surfaces that may be absent from vertebral body of T9

Inferior costal demi-facets

35

What is present at tip of transverse process of T9

Transverse costal facet

36

Orientation of spinous process of T9

Posterior and slightly inferior

37

Synovial joint surface present on vertebral body of T10

Right and left superior costal facet

38

Synovial joint surface absent from vertebral body of T10

Inferior costal demi-facet

39

Position and direction of pedicle from vertebral body of T10

Pedicle arises from upper 1/3 of body and projects posterior and slightly laterally

40

Feature that is very commonly observed on lamina of T10

Para-articular processes

41

Part of the transverse process that may be absent on T10

Transverse costal facet

42

Orientation of spinous process of T10

Posterior and slightly inferior

43

Synovial joint surfaces present on vertebral body of T11

Right and left superior costal facet

44

Synovial joint surface absent from vertebral body of T11

Inferior costal demi-facet

45

Part of transverse process absent on T11

Transverse costal facet

46

Orientation of spinous process of T11

Posterior and horizontal along undersurface

47

Outline of vertebral body of T12 from superior view

Reniform

48

Synovial joint surfaces present on vertebral body of T12

Right and left superior costal facet

49

Synovial joint surface absent from vertebral body of T12

Inferior costal demi-facets

50

Tubercle on T12 represents transverse processes

Lateral tubercle

51

Tubercle on T12 represents mammillary process

Superior tubercle

52

Tubercle on T12 represents accessory process of lumbars

Inferior tubercle

53

Joint surface of typical thoracic transverse process absent on T12

Transverse costal facet

54

Curvature of inferior articular facets of T12

Significantly convex

55

Orientation of spinous process of T12

Posterior and horizontal

56

Generic shape of typical lumbar vertebral body from cranial view

Reniform

57

Pedicle attaches at what location on vertebral body of typical lumbar

Upper 1/3 or half of vertebral body

58

Name of elevation near origin of lumbar transverse process

Accessory process

59

Name give to lamina pedicle junction on typical lumbar

Pars interarticularis

60

Name given to projection on lumbar superior articular process

Mammillary process

61

Characteristic used to differentiate L5 from L1-L4

At L5 transverse process originates from vertebral body, pedicle and lamina-pedicle junction

62

Generic direction and length of 5th lumbar transverse process

Directed straight lateral and is shortest of all lumbar transverse processes

63

Typical number of segments that unite to form adult sacrum

5 segments

64

What forms medial sacral crest

Fused spinous processes and their spinous tubercles

65

What forms intermediate sacral crest

Fused articular processes and their facets

66

What features may be identified along intermediate sacral crest

Mammillary process of S1 and sacral cornu of S5

67

What do sacral cornu represent

Interior articular process and facet of S5

68

Name of inferior opening of sacral spinal canal

Sacral hiatus

69

Imaginary line drawn from transverse process of S1 to inferior lateral sacral angle forms what feature

Lateral sacral crest

70

What is sacral tuberosity

Enlarged transverse tubercle of S2

71

Feature associated with transverse tubercle of S5

Inferior and lateral sacral angle

72

From anterior view, intervertebral discs of sacrum are replaced by what feature

Transverse ridges

73

Feature identified on lateral surface of S1-S3

Auricular surface

74

Feature that anterior surface of superior epiphyseal rim of S1 forms

Sacral promontory

75

Name given to region of bone extending lateral from S1 vertebral body

Sacral Ala

76

What forms sacral ala

Costal element and true transverse process

77

Typical number of segments that form adult coccyx

4 segments

78

Body features present on coccyx

Each vertebral body

Co1 has coccygeal cornu and transverse process

79

Homolog of superior articular process and facet of Co1

Coccygeal cornu

80

Feature present at top of manubrium sterni

Jugular notch

81

Name given to articular site at superolateral margin of manubrium sterni

Clavicular notch

82

Names given to articular sites for joint w/ 1st and 2nd rib

Costal notch I and Costal notch II

83

How many sternabrae for corpus sterni

4

84

Surface feature on corpus sterni that identifies location of old synchondroses

Transverse lines

85

Articular sites for costal cartilage of ribs identified on corpus sterni

Costal notches II-VII

86

Primary parts of vertebral end of a typical rib

Head, neck, tubercle

87

Names given to articular surfaces on head of typical rib

Superior articular surface
Inferior articular surface

88

Feature of head of rib that separates articular surfaces

Interarticular crest

89

Features identified on neck of typical rib

Crest of rib

90

Feature of tubercle of typical rib closer to head of rib

Articular surface of the tubercle

91

Feature of tubercle of typical rib closer to shaft of rib

Non-articular surface of tubercle

92

Features that may be identified on body of typical rib

Costal angle and costal groove

93

What is present on head of 1st rib

Single articular surface

94

Does 1st rib neck contain a crest

No

95

Features identified on tubercle of 1st rib

Articular surface and non-articular surface

96

What is unique about body of 1st rib

Flattened; has a scalene tubercle, groove for subclavian artery and groove for subclavian vein

97

Which groove on body of 1st rib is closer to vertebral end

Groove for subclavian artery

98

Which groove on body of 1st rib is close to sternal end

Groove for subclavian vein

99

Is costal angle or costal groove apparent on first rib

No, neither are apparent ton 1st rib

100

Features identified on head of rib 2

Two articular surfaces and interarticular crest

101

Name given to articular surfaces on head of rib 2 based on location

Superior articular surface and inferior articular surface

102

Feature identified on neck of rib 2

Crest of rib

103

Features identified on tubercle of rib 2

Articular surface and non-articular surface of the tubercle

104

What is the costal angle of a rib

Location on body or rib where there is a directional change toward the sternum

105

Unique feature present on body of rib 2

Tuberosity for serratus anterior

106

What distinguishes vertebral end of rib 11 from typical ribs

Single articular surface
Absence of a well-developed crest on neck
Tubercle may be absent, if present only non-articular surface

107

Features present on body of 11th rib

Costal angle and costal groove are under-developed

108

Appearance of sternal end of 11th rib

Somewhat pointed

109

What helps to distinguish vertebral end of 12th rib from other ribs

Head has a single articular surface, crest of neck poorly developed, tubercle is absent

110

Condition of body of rib 12

Costal angle and costal groove are absent
Shortest of all ribs

111

Appearance of sternal end of 12th rib

Sternal end is pointed

112

Study of joints

Arthrology

113

Study of ligaments

Syndesmology

114

3 histological classifications of joints

Fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial fluid

115

3 latin classifications of joints based on movement

Synarthrosis
Amphiarthrosis
Diarthrosis

116

Classification of joint held together w/ cartilage

Synchondrosis

117

Classification of joint formed by growth condition

Symphysis

118

Classification of synarthrosis joints implies a bond condition

Syndesmosis

119

Classification of a plane or gliding synovial joint

Arthrodia

120

Classification of a hinge type synovial joint

Ginglymus

121

Classification of pivot type synovial joint

Trochoid

122

Classification of a knuckle type synovial joint

Condylar or bicondylar

123

Classification of an oval-like synovial joint

Ellipsoidal

124

Classification of saddle type synovial joint

Sellar

125

Classification of a ball and socket synovial joint

Cotyloid, spheroidal, enarthrosis

126

Term now used to identify synarthrosis joint type

Fibrous joints

127

Name given to a condition in which bones are fused together by bone

Synostosis

128

Fibrous connective tissue classically fills joint space of a syndesmosis

Ligament

129

Synonym for amphiarthrosis joints

Cartilage joint

130

Characteristics of synchondrosis

Primary cartilage joints, temporary, composed of hyaline cartilage and form between ossification centers within a cartilage template

131

Cartilage joint classification would be considered secondary

Symphysis

132

Classification of cartilage joint secondary, permanent, composed of fibrous cartilage and occurs between bones formed by endochondral ossification

Symphysis

133

4 consistent features of synovial joints

Articular or fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, articular cartilage and synovial fluid

134

Examples of synovial plane joints occur along vertebral column

Most zygapophyses of vertebral column

135

Example of synovial pivot joints along vertebral column

Median atlanto-axial joint

136

Shared morphological characteristic of diarthrosis trochoid joints

Osseous pivot point and an osteo-ligamentous ring

137

Example of synovial saddle joint identified along the spine

joint of Luschka of typical cervicals

138

Joints classification that exhibits a knuckle-shaped surface on one side of the joint and an elliptical, concave surface on the other side

Diarthrosis ellipsoidal

139

Example of diarthrosis ellipsoidal joint is identified along spine

Atlanto-occipital

140

Which Synovial joint classifications are now often interchanged in textbooks

Ellipsoidal and condylar synovial joints

141

What Mammals do not have seven cervical vertebra

Two toed sloth, manatee, ant bear, three toed sloth

142

Mammals have more than 7 cervical vertebra

Ant bear, 3 toed sloth

143

Mammals have less than 7 cervical vertebra

2 toed sloth, manatee

144

# of vertebra in typical cervical spine

7

145

Typical vertebra in cervical spine

C3-C6

146

Atypical cervical vertebra

C1, C2, C7

147

Shape of typical cervical vertebral body from cranial view

Rectangular

148

Effect of aging on cervical vertebral body

Diminishes overall height of vertebral body

149

Appearance of typical cervical vertebral body from lateral view

Posterior height greater than anterior height (by few mm)

150

Direction of cervical curve based on osseous features

Posterior or kyphotic

151

What accounts for direction of typical cervical curve

Intervertebral disc height

152

Direction of typical cervical curve

Anterior or lordotic

153

Which vertebral couples demonstrate a decrease in intervertebral disc height

C2/C3 down to C4/C5

154

Which vertebral couple will cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height

C5/C6

155

What are modifications of superior epiphyseal rim of typical cervical

Anterior groove, posterior groove, right and left uncinate processes

156

At what developmental age will uncinate process 1st be observed

3-4 fetal month

157

Joint classification for anterior lip-anterior longitudinal ligament-anterior groove articulation (also for posterior)

Fibrous syndesmosis

158

Joint classification for uncinate process-lateral groove articulation

Modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar)

159

Joint classification for spongy bone-intervertebral disc articulation

Cartilaginous symphysis

160

How many joints are present on upper surface of typical cervical vertebral body

5

161

How many joints are present on lower surface of typical cervical vertebral body

5

162

How many total joints present on vertebral body of typical cervical

10

163

Synovial joint surfaces are present on vertebral body of typical cervical

Right and left uncinate process and right and left lateral groove

164

Name given to uncinate process-lateral groove articulation

Joint of Luschka or uncovertebral joint

165

Joint of Luschka formed from what surfaces

Uncinate process and lateral groove

166

How many total synovial joint surfaces present on vertebral body of a typical cervical

4

167

Functional significance of joint of Luschka

Appears to stabilize IVD while accomodating flexion—extension and requires coupled motion in cervical spine

168

How many cartilaginous symphysis joints are present on vertebral body of typical cervical

Two

169

What muscle attaches to typical cervical vertebral body

Longus colli muscle

170

Orientation and angulation of pedicle of typical cervical

Posteriolateral, 45 degrees

171

In vertebral couple, which cervical vertebral body will contribute more toward the height of intervertebral foramen

Neither, both contribute equally

172

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on inferior vertebral notch of C5

C6

173

Which spinal nerve will be accommodated on superior vertebral notch of C5

C5 spinal nerve

174

Direction of projection of cervical lamina

Posteromedially

175

Ligament that attaches to lamina of typical cervical

Ligamentum flavum

176

Joint classification associated with ligamentum flavum and its attachment

Fibrous syndesmosis

177

Ossification of ligamentum flavum at the attachment site on lamina will result in

Para-articular processes

178

Ossification of ligamentum flavum at attachment site on lamina will be associated with which classification of bone

Accessory bone

179

Ossification within length of ligamentum flavum will be associated with which classification of bone

Heterotopic bone

180

Outline of vertebral foramen of typical cervical vertebra

Heart-shaped or triangular

181

Greatest diameter of vertebral foramen of typical cervicals

Transverse

182

Greatest transverse diameter of typical cervical vertebra occurs at ____?

C6

183

Greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with vertebral body occurs at which typical cervical vertebral couple

C5/C6

184

What muscles will attach to anterior tubercle of typical cervical vertebra

Anterior scalene
Longus capitis
Longus colli
Anterior intertransversarii

185

Muscles that may attach to posterior tubercle of typical cervical vertebra

Splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, levator scapula, middle scalene, posterior scalene, rotators and posterior intertransversarii

186

Muscles that will attach to costotransverse bar

Middle scalene and posterior intertransversarii

187

What produces primary tension on transverse process that cause remodeling in anteriolateral and inferior directions

Cervical spinal nerves as they form cervical and brachial plexuses

188

Name given to modification of anterior tubercle of C6 transverse process

Carotid tubercle

189

What causes remodeling of anterior tubercle of C6

Common carotid artery

190

What occupies typical cervical transverse foramen

Vertebral artery
Vertebral venous plexus
Postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

191

Part of PNS observed in transverse foramen of typical cervical

Postganglionic sympathetic motor nerve fibers

192

Name of lamina-pedicle junction of typical cervical vertebrae

Articular pillar

193

Name of surface feature observed between ends of articular pillar

Groove/sulcus for dorsal ramus of cervical spinal nerve

194

Classic angulation for typical cervical articular facets

40 to 45 degrees

195

Recent work suggests what angulation for typical cervical facets

55 to 60 degrees

196

Orientation of typical cervical inferior articular facet

Forward, lateral, downward (FoLD)

197

Orientation of typical cervical superior articular facet

Backwar, upward, medial (BUM)

198

Muscles that attach to typical cervical articular processes

Longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis capitis, semispinalis cervicis, multifidis and rotators

199

Muscles blend with capsular ligament of cervical zygapophyses

Semispinalis capitis, multifidis and rotator longus

200

Joint classification for typical cervical zygapophysis

Synovial plane joint

201

Modifications of synovial joint observed in cervical spine

Meniscoidal folds

202

Function of meniscoidal folds in cervical zygapophysis

Distribute pressure across joint surface

203

Greatest range of flexion—extension among typical cervical vertebra occurs at which couple

C5/C6

204

Motions that are coupled in cervical spine

Lateral bending and axial rotation

205

Ranges of coupled motion in cervical vertebra begin to decrease with what couple

C5/C6

206

Usual condition for caucasian cervical spinous process

Bifid

207

Usual condition for african-american cervical spinous process

Non-bifid