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Flashcards in Exam 1 Set 1 Deck (27)
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1

What are the three "isms" at the source of Knowledge?

Empiricism, Rationalism, and Testimony

2

What are the four "isms" that make up the content of knowledge?

Skepticism, Idealism, Pragmatism, Contextualism

3

What are three common metaphors for how knowledge is gained?

Acquisition, Construction, Participation

4

According to Driscoll & Burner in Ch. 1, what does it mean to learn?

persisting change in human performance or performance potential, which must be a result of experience and interaction in the world, not just maturation

5

Define theory.

more than just an hypothesis (suggested answer to a question). Have gone through the “theory building” process which is systematic and recursive.

6

What is learning theory?

a conceptual framework linking observed changes with what is thought to bring about those changes to explain learning. It Is descriptive (what; how & why; who, where, & when).

7

What makes a new theory a worthy competitor?

to be a worthy competitor, any new theory must reinterpret all of the previous findings as well as account for the anomalous ones that prompted its invention in the first place

8

instruction =

intervention. Anything done purposefully to facilitate learning. Any deliberate arrangement of learning conditions to promote the attainment of some intended goal.

9

What is instructional theory?

An attempt to provide principles by which learning can be assured. It is a prescription of how instruction should occur given –a set of conditions - methods, and –outcomes.

10

What does design theory emphasize?

Where.

11

Give 5 examples of instructional strategies.

Direct instruction, indirect instruction, Experimental, individual study, and interactive instruction.

12

What is Educational Psychology?

Branch of psychology concerned with understanding how the instructional environment and the characteristics of the learner interact to produce cognitive growth in the learner.

13

What ideas are at the root of behaviorism?

The idea that a lens, or lenses change. Use of units of analysis. Thorndike's Law of Effect, and Pavlov's Classical Conditioning.

14

Are the changes made through Operant Conditioning voluntary or involuntary?

Voluntary.

15

Who is associated with Operant Conditioning?

Skinner.

16

What makes up Operant Conditioning?

S-R-S. Discriminative Stimulus (the cue) , Operant Response (what the organism does) , Contingent Stimulus (the concequence).

17

What are four terms associated with Operant Conditioning?

Mastery learning•Programmed instruction•Behavioral objectives•Task analysis

18

What is positive reinforcement?

Giving a stimulus to increase behavior

19

What is negative reinforcement?

Removing a stimulus to increase behavior

20

What is punishment?

Giving a stimulus to decrease behavior

21

What is Reinforcement Removal?

Removing a stimulus to remove behavior

22

Example of a fixed ratio.

Extra recess for every 5 books read.

23

Example of a variable ratio.

Computer time for random number of completed assignments.

24

Example of a variable interval.

random pop quizzes

25

Example of a fixed interval

DVD every Friday.

26

What is chaining?

Building desired responses in parts.

27

What is Shaping?

Building the desired response as a whole.