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Flashcards in Exam 1 terms Deck (48):
1

crime

a wrong against society proclaimed by law
if committed under certain circumstances punishable by society

2

census model

majority of citizens in a society share the same values &beliefs

3

conflict model

determined by the groups that hold economic, political, &social power in a community

4

public order crime

outlawed activities that are considered contrary to public values &morals
public drunkness, prostitution, gambling

5

white collar crime

business-related crimes committed by an individual / business to obtain a personal / business advantage

6

organized crime

illegal acts by illegal organizations usually for economic gain
mobs

7

cyber crime

crime directly related to computers

8

criminology

study of the causes &control of crime
contains many different theories as to why people commit crime

9

theory

an explanation of a happening that is based on observation, experimentation, &reasoning

10

choice theory

people commit crimes because they choose to

11

biological theory

physical features are related to criminal behavior
-sloping foreheads, extra fingers, toes, &nipples, excessive body hair

12

psychological theory

focuses on abnormalities such as personality disorders

13

xyy chromosome theory

idea that violent behavior in males can be attributed to the presence of an extra y chromosome

14

sociological theory

based on social determinism
- relations, social interactions, social expectations, &pressure exerted by peers

15

strain theory

extraordinary pressures make people more likely to commit crime

16

social disorganization theory

explains crime rates by examining city neighborhood characteristics

17

victimology

scientific study of victims
- behaviors
- injuries
- assistance
- legal rights
- recovery

18

choice theory response

harsher penalties &punishments

19

biological theory response

treatment (medicine)

20

psychological theory response

treatment (counseling)

21

sociological theory response

improve environmental conditions

22

ucr

database of info about reported / known crimes collected by the fbi

23

ucr limitations

not all crimes are reported
when several crimes take place in one event, only the most serious offenses are included
departments may manipulate data
crime data may be bias in certain neighborhoods

24

ncvs

directly survey participants to determine their experiences as victims of crime
asked about being the victim of rape, robbery, assault, larceny, burglary, &auto theft

25

ncvs limitations

covers only a small number of offenses
honesty of the respondent
memory of the respondent

26

self report surveys / srs

method of gathering crime data that relies on participants to reveal &detail their own criminal / delinquent behavior
drug use, theft

27

srs limitations

honesty of the respondent

28

types of law enforcement agencies

federal
state
county
municipal

29

political era

patronage system
form of corruption in which the political party in power hires &promotes police officers, receiving job related "favors" in return

30

reform era

emphasizes centralized police organizations, increased use of technology, &limitation of discretion thru regulations
police chiefs took control of their departments

31

community era

based on the notion that meaningful interaction between officers &citizens will lead to a partnership in preventing &fighting crime

32

becoming a police officer

not have been convicted of a felony
eligible drivers license
be at least 21 yrs old

33

police officer education

bachelor's degree or above
must have 60 semester hours of credit

34

fleeing felon doctrine

permits use of force, including deadly force, against an individual suspected of a felony &who is in clear fight

35

clear &present danger rule

deadly force may be justifiable only if the officer / general public is in immediate danger

36

procedural justice

refers to the fairness of the process by which the police exercise their authority

37

4th amendment

the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, &effects, against unreasonable searches &seizures, shall not be violated, &no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause

38

probable cause

likelihood that there is a direct link between a suspect &a crime

39

searches in your residence

w a warrant
w/out a warrant : individual has to give consent, done w accompany to arrest

40

searches in your car

the 4th amendment does not require police to obtain a warrant to search cars when they have a probable cause / evidence of criminal activity

41

searches on the street

stop &frisk

42

fruit of the poisoned tree

any physical / verbal evidence police are able to acquire by using illegally obtained evidence

43

arrest

restriction of the freedom of a person by taking him / her into police custody

44

an arrest can be made by

arrest warrant
when they observe a violation of the law
life/death
probable cause

45

dwb

driving while black

46

dwh

driving while hispanic

47

fwa

flying while arab

48

pretextual stop

a strop used as a reason to search the vehicle
whren vs united states