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What are the four subfields of anthropology?

Cultural Anthropology, Archaeology, Linguistic Anthropology, and Biological Anthropology

1

What did John-Baptiste Lamarck believe?

He believed that the environment would affect the future shape and organization of animals. Giraffe Necks.

2

Who was the other person besides Darwin who came up with the idea of natural selection?

Alfred Russel Wallace

3

Evidence of Evolution?

Fossil Records

4

What approach does Anthropology take?

Biocultural

5

The molecule that provides the genetic code for biological structures and the means to translate this code.

DNA

6

What are the four evolutionary forces?

Natural Selection, Mutation, Genetic Drift, and Gene Flow

7

What are the 5 major assumptions of the the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium?

1. it assumes random mating;
2. it assumes a large population (no variation in allele frequency and thus no genetic drift)
3. it assumes no movement into or out of the population (no gene flow);
4. it assumes no mutations; and
5. it assumes no natural selection.

8

What is the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium used to calculate for?

Expected genotype frequencies from generation to generation.

9

What are thee effects of each evolutionary force?

Mutation- introduces new alleles into a population.
Natural Selection- filters genetic variation
Genetic Drift- Allele frequencies change because of random chance.
Gene Flow- It makes populations more similar to each other and introduces new alleles at the same time.

10

What are the 7 misconceptions of evolution?

Bigger is Better
Newer is Better
Natural Selection Always Works
There is an Inevitable Direction in Evolution
Natural Selection Always Produces Perfect Structures
All Structures Are Adaptive
Current Structures Always Reflect Initial Adaptations

11

Independent evolution of traits in closely related species.

Parallel Evolution

12

Independent evolution of similar traits in rather distinct evolutionary line

Convergent Evolution

13

A trait that has not changed from an ancestral state.

Primitive Trait

14

A trait that has changed from an ancestral state.

Derived Trait

15

A school of thought that stresses the overall similarity of all (primitive and derived) homologous traits in classification.

Evolutionary Systematics

16

A schools of thought that stresses evolutionary relationships between organisms based on shared derived traits.

Cladistics

17

A model of macroevolutionary change in which long periods of little evolutionary change are followed by relatively short periods rapid evolutionary change.

Punctuated Equilibrium

18

A model of macroevolutionary change whereby evolutionary changes occur at a slow, steady rate over time.

Gradualism