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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (36)
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1
Q

Film* What does Patricia Kuhl mean by babies are “universal citizens of the world?” How long are they universal citizens?

A

Babies can hear all these very small diff. between the sounds that distinguish words. Adults cannot do that.(culture bound listener) Meaning they can learn new languages. Before they reach their 1st b-day

2
Q

Film* Effects of “parentese” on language development

A

language development increases w/ 433 words

3
Q

Film* Age at which child’s brain is developed to 90% of adult size

A

5 yrs

4
Q

Film* Dr.Clearfield, what did she study? What did she find?

A

Examined diff. in executive function tasks between babies in high & low income groups. She found by age 6mths, these differences began

5
Q

Film* What is the Early Achievers Program?

A

Training program for early learning professionals. Purpose is quality & to address current problems in our system. Boost quality in under resourced environments
goals:
- take what’s been learned in brain science & apply it (applying new techniques)

6
Q

Nutritional needs for newborns & infants. What do they need? When can we start solid food (baby food)?

A

-From birth, should be fed breast milk or iron-fortified infant formula (first year or longer)
-Solids (baby food) generally introduced 4-6 months of age
-Avoid overfeeding or underfeeding
-Provide some fat & cholesterol
-Do not overdo high-fiber foods
-Avoid added sugar and salt
-Encourage eating of high-iron foods

7
Q

Motor development (e.g. head control)

A

Neonates can move head to side to avoid suffocation.
– First they lift head: 1mths
– Then they lift chest: 2 mths
Can hold up head between 3 to 6 months old

8
Q

Motor development(hand control)

A

3 months
– Can make clumsy,swiped movements toward objects (ulnar grasp)
• 4 to 6 months
– More successful at grasping objects
– Can transfer objects back and forth between hands.
– Good age for giving rattles, large plastic spoons,etc.
• 9 to 12 months
– Pincer grasp:can pick up tiny objects
• 15 to 24 months
– Children show progression in stacking ability

9
Q

Motor development (locomotion)

A

• 6 months
– Infants roll over, turn from back to stomach and vice versa
-Infants can sit if supported
• 7 months
– Infants usually sit on their own
• 8 to 9 months
– Infants begin to crawl or creep
– May walk with support of adult
• 11 months
– Infants can pull themselves up
• At12to15months
– Walk on their own – now a toddler!
– Fall easily because they are top heavy

10
Q

Visual preferences In infancy

A

By 2mths, they show preference for the human face

11
Q

Development of depth perception

A

• Gibson and Walk (1960) examined depth perception with the visual cliff study
– Identified age at which infants have depth perception
– Ability to crawl indicated in ability to perceive depth
• Campos et al. (1970)
– At 9 months, heart rate increased when infants placed on edge of cliff
– Newly walking infants more afraid of falling off

12
Q

Piaget Sensorimotor 6 substages

A

• First substage (1st month after birth)
– Simple reflexes
– grasping, sucking, visual tracking – reflexes operate independently
» Don’t grasp objects they visually track
• Second substage (1 to 4 months)
– Primary circular reactions
- Beginning to coordinate various sensorimotor schemes -motor scheme (moving hands)
-sensory scheme (looking)
- focus on the infant’s own body
• Third substage (4 to 8 months)
-Secondary circular reactions
-include repeated patterns of activity due to effect on the environment
-focus shifts to objects and environmental events
• Fourth substage (8 to 12 months)
– Coordination of secondary schemes
-Infants begin to show intentional, goal-directed behavior
– pick up cloth (means) to reach for toy (goal)
• Fifth substage (12 to 18 months)
– Tertiary circular reactions
-Become little scientists(trial &error time)
• Sixth substage (18 to 24 months)
– External exploration replaced by mental exploration
-Can now use mental trial-and-error instead of physical trial- and-error
-Can use mental combinations to solve problems

13
Q

Object Permanence

A

• Birth to 6 months
– out of sight means out of mind!
• 8 – 12 months
– some make the A-not-B error (choosing choice A even when they saw you move choice A from red cup to blue cup)

14
Q

Prelinguistic vocalizations

A

-At about 2nd month infant makes vowel-like sounds (cooing)
-Appears to be linked to pleasure
-At 6 – 9 months begin Babbling

15
Q

When is 1st word spoken?

A

11-13mths
-1-2 syllables

16
Q

Vocabulary acquisition-characteristics & timeline?

A

– Slow at first
– 3 or 4 months after first word is spoken they learn 10-30 words
– 18mths:about 50 words
– 22mths:about 300 words

17
Q

Overextension

A

Child learns word & uses that word to describe everything similar to that word

18
Q

Telegraphic speech- what is it and what are the types?

A

• Brief expressions that have meanings of sentences
– Holophrases
• Single words that express complex meanings
– “Dada” means… “There goes Dada”
– Two-word sentences
• Begin when vocab consists of about 50 – 100 words
– “That doll”; words is and a are implied
• Shows understanding of syntax(understanding to put words in proper order to make sense)

19
Q

Attachments and 4 types & characteristics

A

• Secure Attachment= wants mom to come back & console them
• Resistant Attachment= baby’s upset mother leaves, mom comes
back but doesn’t want to be near mom
• Avoidant Attachment= no effort for baby to be back on track w/mom (avoidant behavior)
• Disorganized/disoriented Attachment= baby is disoriented/confusion not sure what to do
- ex: child abuse

20
Q

Fathers & attachment

A

• Fathers are important contributors to emotional security and social competencies of their children
• Children securely attached to both parents are -
– less anxious /socially withdrawn
– adjust better to challenges of attending school
– display better emotional self-regulation, greater social competencies and fewer problem behaviors throughout childhood and adolescence

21
Q

Attachment stability

A

• Patterns of attachment persist when caregiving conditions are the same over time.
• Attachment styles can change
– Can improve or deteriorate depending upon quality of relationship between caregiver and child
• Early attachment patterns endure into middle childhood, adolescence, and even adulthood.

22
Q

Stranger anxiety

A

– Is normal and most infants develop it
• Appears at 6 to 9 months of age
• Peaks at 9 and 12 months of age

23
Q

Social referencing

A

• Sometimes an infant will look to a caregiver for cues to help them know how to respond
– Occurs as early as 6 months

24
Q

Development of self-concept

A

-18 mths infants show self-awareness
Tested by:
placing something on child’s face, have them look In a mirror & If they point/touch themselves, that is self-awareness. If they point to themselves in the mirror, theyre not yet self-aware.
-affects infant’s social and emotional development.
-contributes to the development of the “self-conscious” emotions or “secondary emotions”
– Embarrassment, envy, pride, guilt, and shame

25
Q

Gross & fine motor skills

A

• Gross motor skills
– By 4 to 5yrs old most have mastered large motor skills.
Boys: better in strength & speed
Girls: balance/coordination
• Fine motor skills involve the small muscles used in manipulation and coordination.
-ex:drawing

26
Q

Piaget Preoperational stage

A

-2-7 yrs
-language ability greatest symbolic activity
-symbolic play(pretend) begins 12-13 mths
-Egocentric
-Precausal thinking: “why is the sun shining today?” Child: “Bc I’m gonna go play, it’s out for me.”
-Animism: inanimate objects have human feelings/intentions
-Artificialism: anything that exists must have been made by a conscious entity, who is responsible for its qualities/movements
-Centration: to focus on one characteristic at a time
-Conservation: do not understand substances can change in shape but still have same amount of mass/volume

27
Q

Imaginary friends

A

• 10 - 50% of preschoolers have imaginary companions.
-More common among first born and only children than children with older siblings
• Children with imaginary playmates are
-less aggressive
-more cooperative
-more creative
-show better ability to concentrate
-are more advanced in language development compared to children without imaginary companions

28
Q

Language development (vocabulary, grammar & pragmatics)

A

Vocabulary:
• Preschoolers learn an average of 9 words a day!
-fast-mapping: quickly attach word to the appropriate concept
-Whole object assumption: assume words refer to the whole object, not just component parts/characteristics
- Contrast assumption: assume objects have only one label
Grammar:
-Children’s sentence structure increases during 3rd year
– Also add lots of vocab
-Overregulization: acquire grammatical rules, “mommy sitted down
- End of 3rd yr: wh questions begin
– What? Who? Where? appear first
– Why? When? Which? How? then appear
-Pragmatics: Use and understanding of body language, e.g. gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, taking turns in conversation, listening and speaking, using the appropriate volume, speed, intonation and body distance.

29
Q

Dimensions of child rearing

A

– warmth – coldness
– restrictiveness - permissiveness

30
Q

Inductive & Power assertive methods

A

Inductive:
– Teach knowledge that will help children to generate
desirable behavior on their own
– Reasoning or explaining why one behavior is better than another is the main technique
Power Assertive:
– Physical punishment and denial of privileges
– Rationalize physical punishment due to noncompliance of children
– The greater the use of this method, the less likely the child is to develop internal standards of conduct

31
Q

Methods for getting preschooler to comply

A

Asking them to do something rather than tell them to stop
- Engage child in something else when they are acting in unacceptable way

32
Q

Baumrinds parenting styles

A

Authoritative:
• Controlling but flexible, make reasonable demands, provides explanations for the need to follow rules
• Accepting and responsive to child’s viewpoints, exercise rational, democratic control
Authoritarian: Matildas dad
• Very restrictive, expect strict obedience, rarely explain why rule compliance necessary
• Rely on punitive forceful tactics, insensitive to child’s viewpoints
Permissive Indulgent: Reginas mom
• Accepting but lax, make few demands, permit children to express self freely
• Do not closely monitor child’s activities, rarely exert firm control over behavior
Rejecting Neglecting: Matildas Mom
• Extremely lax and undemanding
• Low in responsiveness and support

33
Q

Piagets 4 characteristics of play

A

• Functional play
– Occurs during sensorimotor stage
– Repetitive motor activity
• Symbolic play (AKA pretend play)
– Occurs at end of sensorimotor stage
– Involves creating settings and scripts
• Constructive play
– Common in early childhood
– Child uses objects or materials to make something
• Formal games
– Games with rules; may be invented by the child
– Involves social interaction as well as physical activity and rules

34
Q

Pro social behavior & empathy

A

Pro-social: helping out, feelings of empathy
Empathy: promotes prosocial behavior and decreases aggression

35
Q

Development of & 3 theories of aggression

A

• Preschoolers display instrumental aggression( wanting access to something)
Hostile aggression: age 6/7 (more common in boys)
Relational aggression: isolating someone from group/gossip (more common in girls)
• Kokko et al., (2014) found aggressive 8-year-olds more aggressive than peers 22 years later
Theories:
-Genetic factors
-receiving physical punishment
-observational learning
-lack of empathy & perspective taking

36
Q

Kohlbergs 3 theories regarding gender development

A

Gender typing occurs in 3 stages:
– Gender identity
• At 2 yrs old - know whether they are male or female
– Gender stability
• At 4 – 5 yrs old - realize one’s sex is for lifetime
– Gender constancy
• At 5 – 7 yrs old – realize changing dress, hair, or wearing an apron does not change your gender