Ericksons 8 stages of Psychosocial Development
Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust (age 1)
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame/guilt (1-3)
Stage 3: Initiative vs. guilt (3-5)
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
Stage 5: Identity vs. Confusion (12-18)
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood)
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Self-absorption (middle adulthood)
Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair (late adulthood)
What are reinforcement and punishment?
Reinforcement: to increase a behavior
Negative Reinforcement: removing consequent
Positive reinforcement: adding consequent
Punishment: to decrease a behavior
+ punishment: adding consequent
- punishment: removing consequent
What is Operant Conditioning?
Developed by Erickson. Child adjusting behavior to conform to social codes, with the expectations for reinforcers.
Piaget 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
Stage 1: Sensorimotor (birth-2)(object permanence mastered)
Stage 2: Preoperational (2-7) (language & expression, egocentric)
Stage 3: Concrete Operational (7-12) (concrete logical thinking)
Stage 4: Formal Operational (12+) (hypothetical thinking)
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Approach
Microsystem: interactions w/child and others in immediate setting
Mesosystem: interactions between Microsystems
Exosystem: institutions that indirectly affect development
Macrosystem: interactions w/beliefs in cultural setting (ex:spanking)
Chronosystem: changes that occur over life course
Vygotsky Sociocultural Perspective
Zone of Proximal Development: task done by child but assisted w/help from someone w/ greater skill.
Inner Speech: outward speech used to teach/guide child trough task becomes inward or embedded into their mind
Scaffolding: cognitive structures to help child complete task. (Starting w/ what child can do & building up)
What is a Correlational Design?
Focuses on natural relationships w/out intervention(not manipulating variables)
What is Correlational Coefficient?
Strength & direction of association between variables (+ or -)
Experimenter manipulates one of more independent variables and measures effects on dependent variable.
-treatment & control group
Cross Sectional Research
Different age groups at same time point
-culture/events unique to that age group
Examines same people over months or years and records changes in development
- Must enlist future researchers to continue study
Monitors groups of 2 or more people of diff age groups for abbreviated periods of time
- Aims to correct possible problems in cross sectional and longitudinal designs
Ovum and one sperm meet in the Fallopian tube. Layer thickens locking out other sperm.
Takes 60-90 min for 2,000 sperm cells to reach Fallopian tube.
Conception results in a zygote
Forms 23 pairs of chromosomes (xx is girl) (xy is boy)
Three prenatal stages of development
- Germinal(wks 0-2)- conception to implantation into uterine wall with embryo blast head first. Blastocyst created
-Trophoblast- produce blood cells, develops into umbilical cord, amniotic sac and chorian, helps form placenta
- Embryonic(wks 3-8)- forms 3 embryonic tissues, heart starts beating, major organ systems develop(limbs, facial features, nervous system and brain). Fetus develops in amniotic sac. Placenta permits oxygen/nutrients, waste to pass to mother from baby. Placenta functions: secretes hormones, prepares breasts for nursing and stimulates contractions.
- Fetal(wks 9-birth)- responds to external stimulation.
1st trim: major organ systems formed
2nd trim: 1 ounce-2pounds, open/shut eyes and suck thumb, responds to sound waves
3rd trim: gains 5 1/2 ibs, turns to head down position, vigorously moves limbs
What did DeCasper and Fifer do and find?
Tested if babies remembered mother’s voice and Cat in the Hat after birth. During lasts 6wks, moms read book out loud twice daily. Found baby’s responded to mothers voice by long pauses while sucking on artificial nipple.
Pregnancy & Nutrition
Prenatal care VERY important! Malnutrition can lead to:
What are teratogens and pathogens? What do they do?
Teratogens: environmental agents that can harm baby
How do alcohol and drugs influence development of fetus?
Results in: smaller head/brain, widely spaced eyes, underdeveloped jaw, flat nose, poor social cues
Drugs: LBW, birth defects, smaller in size, stillborn, etc
How does age of parent influence prenatal development?
Older fathers create abnormal sperm
Recommend fathering before 29-30
Mother’s ideal age is during your 20’s
-miscarriages and Down syndrome increase as moms age increase
-can be prevented through good prenatal care
*Film DeCaspers views on prenatal functioning/abilities
All senses work before they are born.. memory, learning etc
Not much of a diff between last couple weeks/ months than when baby is born
*Film Research findings on fetal auditory functioning
The fetus is played a tape of a language he couldn’t
have ever heard followed by white noise in the same frequency range as
the voice. If fetus hears it, his heart rate changes. If the sound
continues, he adjusts to it & heart rate returns normal. If another sound
signal is played & his heart rate undergoes a 2nd Change, Its assumed he has
heard the difference in the 2 Sounds.
*Film Findings when cold water is injected into amniotic sac?
With a sharp increase in heart rate
*Film Findings on fetal response to music (Heloise)
Baby became calm, flat, regular bc of familiarity w/music
*Film Lickliter views on effects of fetal stimulation during pregnancy
Fetus learns more w/ 2 stimuli rather than just 1. However, overstimulation can negatively affect both infant and fetus.
*Film Busnel & Vulff, what did they do/find?
Baby’s heart rate increases when mom is speaking & regulates when she stops. All up to interpretation, but there is a relationship.
Stages of Childbirth
Stage 1: Effacement & dilation
-few hrs to day or more
-Effacement: thinning of cervix
-dilates to 10 cm
Transition:head starts to enter birth canal
Stage 2: Crowning & delivery
-minutes to hours
-Crowning: can see head
-contractions move baby
-urge to push near end
Stage 3: Placental
-minutes to an hour
-placenta detaches and comes out
Birth to first 4 weeks
What is considered LBW? Premature birth?
-less than 5.5 lbs
-born prior to 37 wks
-Thin, covered in lanugo and or vernex
Interventions for preterm and + effects
Early stimulation (hugging, rocking, singing, skin to skin, talking
+ effects: faster weight gain, fewer respiratory problems, faster healing
Assess health of baby @ birth:
Neonates reflex abilities
Rooting: finger on baby’s mouth
Grasping: have strong grasps
Stepping: when held upright, attempt to walk
Babinski: touching bottom of feet to see if toes fan out
Tonic-neck: bow and arrow pose
Neonates Visual abilities
- can detect movement
-little or no visual accommodation
-can’t converge their eyes on objects close to them
Color: some say they do, some say they see b&w up until 4 months
Abilities in taste, smell & touch
Taste: Yes!discriminate between several tastes (sour, bitter, sweet) Prefer sweet
Smell: Yes! Discriminate between distinct odors
Touch: important for learning and communication (skin to skin)- comfort/security, bonds of attachment
Risk factors for SIDS
-sleeping on stomach or side
-From lower SES
-babies of teenage mother’s
-mother’s who used narcotics during or after pregnancy