Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (50)
What is culture?
The distinct ways that people in different social groups live
How are leisure and culture connected?
Leisure impacts culture, and culture impacts leisure
What are the characteristics of culture?
Shared, learned, integrated, symbols
How is the characteristic of "shared" defined? Example? Related Concept.
Values and standards of behavior are held in common. Ideas, beliefs, values, and attitudes are all shared in a culture. EX: Football to Americans is different than football to Germans. American values are different than other cultures.
Related concept is subcultures based on leisure
How is the characteristic of "learned" defined? Example? Related concept.
We learn our culture by living. Someone has to teach us these values. EX: In some social groups, it is considered rude to be late to a party.
The related concept is Enculturation.
What is enculturation?
Process through which we learn what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
How the characteristic of "Integrated" defined? Example?
All parts of a culture are interrelated; I have nothing to do with it, but I'm still impacted. EX: When and where people take their summer vacations affects transportation, hospitality, and attraction services
How is the characteristic of "symbol" defined? Example? Related concept.
Culture "currency" is based on representation. Symbols mean and stand for something. EX: the scoring system for strikes and spares in bowling; pink for breast cancer awareness.
Related concept is culture change.
What is innovation?
Any new practice, tool, or principle that gains widespread acceptance. EX: Highways
What is diffusion?
The spread of customs from one culture to another. EX: McDonalds
What is culture loss?
Change resulting in the loss of a cultural tradition. EX: Loss of language
What is acculturation?
Exchange of cultural features as a result of prolonged contact between groups
What are the four possible outcomes of acculturation?
Assimilation, integration, rejection, and marginalization
What is assimilation? Example?
To adopt the ways of the main culture. EX: the Indians, college life, immigration
What is integration? Example?
Combining parts so they form a new whole, "melting pot" EX: ethnic groups
What is rejection? Example?
Denial and avoidance of others. EX: the amish
What is marginalization? Example?
To confining someone to an unimportant or powerless position within a group. EX: persons living with disabilities, women, racial minorities, etc.
What are two assumptions about early human cultures?
They only spent 4-5 hours gathering food, and spent the rest of the day in leisure. They had few material goods.
What are some ways to explore leisure and cultural development?
Modernization and ethnocentricity
What is modernization?
A transition involving the implementation of recent techniques, methods, or ideas
What is ethnocentricity?
Centered on a specific group, usually ones own, and that your own version is superior.
What are three ways to help us understand leisure as space?
Density, concentration, and pattern
What is density? Example?
How often is activity occurring in a particular space. EX: boats in a marina, people in a park
What is concentration? Example?
The extent of a features spread over space. Are they close together spread out? EX: How far apart are the parks
What is pattern? Example?
Geometric arrangement of objects in space. Are they lined up in a linearly, circle, square, etc. EX: people lined up, boats in a marina.
What is crowding?
A subjective and negative judgement about the number of objects in a given space
What two things did we consider when it came to density, concentration, and pattern?
Crowding and distance
What is distance decay?
The further out you go (farther distance), the less likely someone is to go
What is space time compression?
Processes that accelerate the experience of time and this reduce the significance of distance
What two concepts are related to distance?
Distance decay and space-time compression
How does sense of place impact leisure?
Leisure is attached to particular places
What other concepts are connected to sense of place and leisure?
Smellscape, place attachment, place identity, and place dependence
What is smellscape?
Smells are place related and elicit emotional responses
What is place attachment?
An emotional bond between a person and a certain place
What is place identity?
A place provided the source of self-identification for a person. It is ones 3rd identity. 1st identity is your home identity. 2nd identity is work/school identity. 3rd is a leisure identity.
What is place dependency?
A person's functional association with the place
What are the concerns attached the leisure's geography?
Pressure of the health of the environment.
What are two solutions for these concerns?
Conservation and preservation
What is conservation?
Efficient use of natural resources over long term
What is preservation?
Protection of natural resources from human damage
How are concerned tourists responding?
Ecotourism and sustainable tourism
What is ecotourism?
Tourism to support conservation efforts and observe wild life. Live with local village.
What is sustainable tourism?
Tourism taking place with regulations of how many tourists and where they can go; cultural aspects limited/regulated
What are two ways that technology is impacting people's lives today?
Information technology revolution and information and communication
What is technology?
How people modify the world to suit their own purposes
What was the information technology revolution?
Rapid changes brought about by information forms of technology
What was information and communication technology?
Any device or application that provides access to information through telecommunications
What are four ways that leisure and technology are intertwined?
Technology developed for scientific and military purposes, technology developed specifically for leisure, technology expands and widens the range of leisure options, simulated leisure
What is created through leisure technology?