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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (71):
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What are the boundaries of the quadrangular space?

1. Superior part of the Teres major
2. Inferior part of the Teres minor
3. Humerus
4. Lateral border of the Long head of the triceps

1

What are the contents of the quadrangular space?

1. The axillary nerve
2. The posterior circumflex humeral artery

2

What is the origin of the Suprascapular Nerve?

Superior trunk of the brachial plexus receiving fibers from C5, C6, and sometimes C4

3

What structures does the Suprascapular nerve innervate?

1. Supraspinatus of the glenohumeral joint
2. Infraspinatus of the glenohumeral joint

4

What is the origin of the Axillary Nerve?

The terminal branch of the posterior cord receiving fibers from C5 and C6

5

What structures does the Axillary Nerve innervate?

1. Glenohumeral joint
2. Teres Minor
3. Deltoid
4. Skin of the Superolateral arm

6

What is the origin of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve?

Posterior aspect of the anterior ramus of C5 with frequent contributions from C4

7

What structures does the Dorsal Scapular Nerve innervate?

1. Rhomboid Major
2. Rhomboid Minor
3. Levator Scapulae

8

What is the origin of the Long Thoracic Nerve?

The posterior aspect of anterior rami C5, C6, C7

9

What structures does the Long Thoracic Nerve innervate?

Serratus Anterior

10

What is the origin of the Subclavian Nerve?

Superior trunk receiving fibers from C5, C6, and sometimes C4

11

What structures does the Subclavian Nerve innervate?

1. Subclavius
2. Sternoclavicular Joint (accessory phrenic root innervates diaphragm)

12

What is the origin of the Lateral Pectoral Nerve?

Side branch of the lateral cord receiving fibers from C5, C6, C7

13

What structures does the Lateral Pectoral Nerve innervate?

Pectoralis major and sometimes pectoralis minor

14

What is the origin of the Musculocutaneous Nerve

Terminal branch of the lateral cord receiving fibers from C5-C7

15

What structures does the Musculocutaneous Nerve innervates?

1. Muscles of anterior compartments of the arm (corcobrachialis, biceps brachial, brachialis)
2. Skin of lateral aspect of forearm

16

What is the origin of the Median Nerve?

1. Lateral root: terminal branch of the lateral cord receiving fibers from C6 and C7
2. Medial Root: terminal branch of the medial cords receiving fibers from C8 and T1

17

What structures does the Median Nerve innervate?

1. Muscles of the anterior forearm compartment
2. 5 intrinsic muscles in thenar half of Palm
3. Palmer skin

18

What is the origin of the Medial Pectoral Nerve?

Side branches of medial cord recieving fibers from C8 and T1

19

What structures does the Medial Pectoral Nerve innervate?

1. Pectoralis minor
2. Sternocostal part of Pectoralis major

20

What is the origin of the Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Arm?

Side branch of the medial cord receiving fibers from C8 and T1

21

What structures are innervated by the Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Arm?

Skin of medial sides of arm

22

What is the origin of the Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm?

Side branches of the medial cord receiving fibers from C8 and T1

23

What structures does the Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Forearm innervate?

Skin of medial side of the forearm

24

What is the origin of the Ulnar Nerve?

Larger terminal branch of the medial cord receiving fiber from C8, T1, and sometimes C7

25

What structures does the Ulnar Nerve innervate?

1. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
2. Ulnar half of Flexor Digitorum Profundus
3. Most intrinsic muscles of hand
4. Skin of hand medial to axial line of digit 4

26

What is the origin of the Upper Subscapular Nerve?

Side branch of posterior cord receiving fibers from C5

27

What structures does the Upper Subscapular Nerve innervate?

Superior portion of Subscapularis

28

What is the origin of the Lower Subscapular Nerve?

Side branch of posterior cord receiving fibers from C6

29

What structures does the Lower Subscapular Nerve innervate?

1. Inferior portion of the Subscapularis
2. Teres Major

30

What is the origin of the Thoracodorsal Nerve?

Side branch of the posterior cord receiving fibers from C6, C7, and C8

31

What structures does the Thoracodorsal Nerve innervate?

Latissimus Dorsi

32

What is the origin of the Radial Nerve?

Larger terminal branch of posterior cord (largest branch of plexus) receiving fibers from C5-T1

33

What structures does the Radial Nerve innervate?

1. All muscles of the posterior compartments of the arm and forearm
2. Skin of posterior and inferolateral arm, posterior forearm, and dorsum of hand lateral to axial line of digit 4

34

What is the origin of the Suprascapular Artery?

Thyrocervical (or as a direct branch of the subclavian artery)

35

What is the origin of the Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery?

3rd part of the axillary artery

36

Where is the First Part of the Axillary Artery located?

Between the 1st rib and the Pectoralis minor

37

How many branches does the First Part of the Axillary Artery have and what are they?

It has 1 branch called the Superior Thoracic Artery

38

Where is the Second Part of the Axillary Artery located?

Posterior to the Pectoralis Minor

39

How many branches does the Second Part of the Axillary Artery have and what are they?

It has 2 branches and they are:
1. Thoraco-acromial Artery
2. Lateral Thoracic Artery

40

Where the is Third Part of the Axillary Artery Located?

It extends from the lateral border of the Pectoralis Minor to the inferior border of the Teres Major

41

How many branches does the Third Part of the Axillary Artery have and what are they?

It has 3 branches and they are:
1. Subscapular Artery
2. Anterior Circumflex Humeral Artery
3. Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery

42

What are the terminal branches of the Subscapular Artery?

1. Circumflex Scapular Artery
2. Thoracodorsal Artery

43

What does the Brachial Artery supply?

It is the main arterial supply of the arm

44

Where does the Brachial Artery begin?

It is a continuation of the Axillary Artery and it begins at the inferior border of the Teres Major

45

What is the Profunda Brachii a division of?

It is a division of the Brachial Artery

46

What is the origin of the Profunda Brachii Artery?

Near the origin of the Brachial Artery near the middle of the arm

47

What is the origin of the Ulnar Artery?

Larger terminal branch of brachial artery in the cubital fossa

48

What is the origin of the Radial Artery?

Smaller terminal branch of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa

49

What is the lateral eminence called?

Thenar eminence

50

What is the Medial Eminence of the hand called

Hypothenar eminence- this is the smaller of the 2

51

Where is the Thenar Eminence located?

At the base of the thumb

52

Where is the Hypothenar Eminence located?

Proximal to the base of the 5th finger

53

Where is the fascia of the palm thick?

In the center of the palm where it forms the Palmer aponeurosis and in the fingers where is forms the digital sheaths

54

What are the fibrous digital sheaths?

Ligamentous tubes that enclose the flexor tendons and their synovial sheaths

55

What compartment is medial to the medial fibrous septum and what does it contain?

Medial/Hypothenar compartment containing the Hypothenar muscles

56

What compartment is lateral to the lateral fibrous septum and what does it contain?

Lateral/Thenar compartment containing the Thenar muscles

57

What compartment is between the Thenar and Hypothenar compartments and what does it contain?

Central compartment containing the flexor tendon and their sheaths, the lumbrical muscles, the superficial palmar arterial arch, and the digital vessels and nerves

58

What compartment is the deepest muscular plane of the palm and what does it contain?

Adductor compartment containing the adductor Pollicis

59

Where is the Thenar space and and midpalmar space located?

Between the flexor tendons and the fascia covering the deep palmar muscles

60

What forms the Thenar eminence?

Thenar muscles

61

What are the Thenar muscles responsible for?

Opposition of the thumb

62

At what joint does opposition of the thumb occur?

Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

63

What forms the Hypothenar eminence?

Hypothenar muscles

64

What is the action of the dorsal interossei muscles?

Abduct the finger (DAB)

65

What is the action of the palmar interossei muscles?

Adduct the fingers (PAD)

66

What is the main contributor of the superficial palmar arch?

Deep (palmar) branch of the ulnar artery

67

What digital arteries does the superficial palmar arch give rise to?

3 Common palmar digital arteries

68

What arteries do the common palmar digital arteries anastomoses with?

Palmar metacarpal arteries from the deep palmar arch

69

What do the common palmar digital arteries divide into?

A pair of proper palmar digital arteries

70

What forms the deep palmar arch?

Radial artery and deep branch of the ulnar artery but mainly the radial artery