Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (262)
What is the role of the glomerulus?
The initial filtration of blood
How many nephrons are there per kidney?
What is the role of mesangial cells?
They contain growth factors, control matrix proteins, and contractile ability
What is the role of the basement membrane?
Gives the membrane structure
What causes protein and blood to be filtered into the blood?
disease or damage to the kidney
What is Azotemia?
elevation of BUN and creatinine where there is a decrease in GFR
What is uremia?
Excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood
Is uremia a toxic condition?
What causes Uremia?
Failure of renal excretory function, metabolic and endocrine alterations and renal damage
What is proteinurea?
protein in the urine
What is hematuria?
blood in the urine
what is natureisis?
excretion of sodium
Water follows ____?
What characterizes acute kidney disease/injury/failure?
Abrupt decrease in GFR or increase in SCr
How is AKD classified?
- loss of function
- End stage kidney disease
What are the 3 types of AKD?
What is prerenal AKD?
decreased renal blood flow
What is intrinsic AKD?
A structure within the kidney is damaged
What is postrenal AKD?
An obstruction is present within the urine collection system
What is CKD?
Progressive loss of function over several months to years
and is characterized by the gradual replacement of normal kidney tissue with parenchymal fibrosis
What are 3 chronic disease states that influence CKD?
What is hemodialysis?
Perfusion of blood and dialysate on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane.
What force removes substances from the blood in hemodialysis?
diffusion and convection
How is excess plasma water removed in hemodialysis?
What is peritoneal dialysis?
Instillation of dialysate into the peritoneal cavity via a permanent peritoneal catherer
What are some causes of drug induces kidney disease?
Can all cause analgesic nephropathy and kidney necrosis
What is nephritis?
Chronic glomerulonephritis is the most common chronic renal failure in humans
What are the 2 types of chronic glomerulonephritis?
secondary- associated with systemic diseases (SLE, HTN, DM)
What are 3 immune reactions that are involved in glomerular disease?
1. Antibody associated disease
2. Cell - mediated
3. Other mechanisms