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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (262)
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1

What is the role of the glomerulus?

The initial filtration of blood

2

How many nephrons are there per kidney?

1-2 million

3

What is the role of mesangial cells?

They contain growth factors, control matrix proteins, and contractile ability

4

What is the role of the basement membrane?

Gives the membrane structure

5

What causes protein and blood to be filtered into the blood?

disease or damage to the kidney

6

What is Azotemia?

elevation of BUN and creatinine where there is a decrease in GFR

7

What is uremia?

Excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood

8

Is uremia a toxic condition?

Yes

9

What causes Uremia?

Failure of renal excretory function, metabolic and endocrine alterations and renal damage

10

What is proteinurea?

protein in the urine

11

What is hematuria?

blood in the urine

12

what is natureisis?

excretion of sodium

13

Water follows ____?

Sodium

14

What characterizes acute kidney disease/injury/failure?

Abrupt decrease in GFR or increase in SCr

15

How is AKD classified?

RIFLE
-Risk
-Injury
- Failure
- loss of function
- End stage kidney disease

16

What are the 3 types of AKD?

Prerenal
Intrinsic
Postrenal

17

What is prerenal AKD?

decreased renal blood flow

18

What is intrinsic AKD?

A structure within the kidney is damaged

19

What is postrenal AKD?

An obstruction is present within the urine collection system

20

What is CKD?

Progressive loss of function over several months to years
and is characterized by the gradual replacement of normal kidney tissue with parenchymal fibrosis

21

What are 3 chronic disease states that influence CKD?

DM, HTN,HLD

22

What is hemodialysis?

Perfusion of blood and dialysate on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane.

23

What force removes substances from the blood in hemodialysis?

diffusion and convection

24

How is excess plasma water removed in hemodialysis?

Through ultrafiltration

25

What is peritoneal dialysis?

Instillation of dialysate into the peritoneal cavity via a permanent peritoneal catherer

26

What are some causes of drug induces kidney disease?

Antibiotics
Diuretics
NSAIDS
Can all cause analgesic nephropathy and kidney necrosis

27

What is nephritis?

Chronic glomerulonephritis is the most common chronic renal failure in humans

28

What are the 2 types of chronic glomerulonephritis?

primary
secondary- associated with systemic diseases (SLE, HTN, DM)

29

What are 3 immune reactions that are involved in glomerular disease?

1. Antibody associated disease
2. Cell - mediated
3. Other mechanisms

30

What are 2 types of antibody mediated glomerular injury?

Circulating antigen-antibody complexes
Anti Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies