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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (41):

When are cravings the strongest?

When people put themselves down / When people feel overwhelmed about life


What is the purpose of having the client identify which theory (or theories) led to his addiction?

To reduce client's sense of shame


(T/F) The recovery process assumes that the client will suffer multiple relapses



What is/are (a) behavioral problem(s) in inexperienced marijuana users?

Some inexperienced smokers react with panic of losing control.


What are the cognitive distortions associated with Gorsky?

(1) Euphoric recall—Focusing on and exaggerating the good memories of use. Also called rosy recollection. (2) Positive expectancy—The belief that substance use will bring us pain-free pleasure, due to experiences in the early part of addiction. (3) Trigger event—Anything that causes sudden stress, pain, or discomfort. obsession—Inability to stop thinking about using. Usually fostered by euphoric recall and positive expectancy. (4) Compulsion—A feeling process that occurs in the gut. A strong, irrational desire to do something that is not in the person’s best interest. (5) Craving—A body or tissue hunger for substances.


What are the three levels of desire?

Thoughts, urges, and cravings


What are DSM4 disorders/impulse control disorders?

KLEPTOMANIA is the inability to refrain from stealing nonessential items. Prior to stealing, there is a heightened state of arousal, often experienced as tension, that is then replaced with a sense of euphoria. The intention behind the act cannot be that of anger or vengeance. PYROMANIA is the setting of fires that result in the experience of pleasure, gratification, or relief. These occurrences happen on more than one occasion and are approached with much fascination and curiosity about fire itself. There cannot be an ulterior motive behind the fire setting. TRICHOTILLOMANIA is the compulsive self-removal of one’s own hair. This resulting hair loss is noticeable to others. The individual experiences a buildup of tension prior to engaging in the behavior and then a sense of pleasure or relief once the hair is removed


What is important in a relapse prevention plan?

To identify relapse triggers and to develop a detailed, reasonable, workable plan to address the clients triggers


What was cannabis originally used to treat?

It was used medically in 2737 BC in China for gout, rheumatism, malaria, constipation, and absent-mindedness.


Does LSD lead to physical dependence?



What diseases are contributed by alcohol?

Heavy alcohol use affects every organ in the body. Brain damage, liver damage, heart disease, cancer, and weakened immune system can be effects of alcohol.


How is marijuana classified?

a psychoactive, schedule-1 drug


What are symptoms of marijuana withdrawal?

Irritability, anger, aggression, nervousness, anxiety, sleep difficulty, decreased appetite or weight loss, restlessness, and depressed mood. At least one of the following physical symptoms causing significant discomfort: Abdominal pain, shakiness / tremors, sweating, fever, chills, or headache.


How is LSD absorbed into one's system and how is it tolerated?

It gets absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. Tolerance develops rapidly. WLSD is considered to be the most potent psychoactive agent known to man because it produces effects at such low doses.


What have amphetamines been used to treat?

Stimulation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system, a replacement for ephedrine in the treatment of asthma, OTC inhaler for clearing stuffy noses, narcolepsy, weight-control, depression, and hyperactivity in children.


What are the types of cocaine?

Crack (freebase), powder (cocaine hydrochloride), and coca leaves (coca paste)


How were amphetamines used during WW1 & WW2?

To decrease fatigue in soldiers


What are the mechanisms of action for amphetamines?

Amphetamines resemble dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters, making these the primary focus of research. Methamphetamine crosses the blood brain barrier easier but there is no known effect from this. Amphetamines, like cocaine, increase the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) but through a different mechanism. They stimulate release of the chemicals.


What is the first step in challenging thinking?

If an addict can accept he or she has an addiction, the next step is to understand how the addiction affects his or her thinking.


What are the 12 step abbreviations?

A.A: As previously mentioned, the first 12-step support group was Alcoholics Anonymous. N.A: Narcotics Anonymous was founded in 1953 and is the second largest 12-step support group. C.A: Cocaine Anonymous is a 12-step support group that has a similar format to AA. It began in Los Angeles in 1982 and was founded by a member of AA. Dual Recovery Anonymous is a 12-step support group that was founded in Kansas in 1989 and like other support groups was adapted from AA. This group is intended for those who have been struggling with emotional and psychiatric illness, as well as addiction. What is different about this group is that in order to treat the psychiatric illness, many members may be using prescription medication (this may be frowned upon in other 12-step meetings such as AA). Alateen, serving the population aged 13–19, began in 1957. Al-anon: This is the world’s largest support group for friends and families of alcoholics.


Is there a debate on behavioral addictions?

In the field, there has been much debate on whether this type of behavior can be classified as an “addiction.” The leading objection to identifying process addiction as an addiction is that there is no ingestion of a substance, the idea being that true addiction involves an alteration of the physiological state that most likely leads to tolerance and/or withdrawal.


What are 3 essentials to addictive recovery?

Honesty, open-mindedness, and willingness


Why did the temperance movement begin and how did it move into prohibition?

The temperance movement grew in popularity throughout the early 1800s. With arriving immigrants and the popularity of cold beer and wine, the temperance movement moved toward abstinence from all alcoholic beverages. As a result of the growth of temperance toward abstinence, the idea of prohibition grew.


What are the two types of LSD trips?

(1) Expansive-unlocked secrets of the universe and (2) Constrictive-paranoid and little movement


How was LSD used in biopsychology?

Scientists used to try and create a “model psychosis” for study. LSD was used in psychotherapy to get past roadblocks. It was also an experimental treatment for alcohol dependence. LSD was later used in the hope for terminally ill cancer patients to gain a better understanding of their mortality.


How long does addictive thinking last?



What are cognitive distortions associated with addictive thinking?

Hypersensitivity, Personalizing, False Sense of Entitlement, Fortune Telling, Projection, Catastrophizing, Fear of Emotion, Minimizing, Rationalization, Justifying


Who wrote a pamphlet indicating a connection between heavy drinking of distilled spirits and jaundice, madness, and epilepsy? He was among the first to call alcoholism a disease.

Benjamin Rush


When did the American public become concerned with marijuana?

In 1926 articles begin to appear associating marijuana with crime, and the public then took interest. By 1937 the government announced marijuana traffic was of great concern, despite there being no evidence of extensive use in communities. The reasoning, instead, was sensationalized stories by articles and police of crimes of violence being perpetrated by users of marijuana. As a result, The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 put an end to medicinal uses.


What is prohibition? What occurred from it?

Prohibition was the nation-wide ban and criminalization of alcohol. Because of prohibition, organized crime became both more organized and much more profitable. However, prohibition did result in less alcohol consumption and hospital admissions for alcohol dependence and deaths related to alcohol decreased sharply. Taxes were a major reason it was repelled. People paying large income tax realized their tax could be reduced through the taxation of alcohol.


What constitutes a drink of alcohol?

1 drink = 1 oz. of spirits, 4 oz. of wine, or 12 oz. of beer


What form of alcohol do most Americans drink?

Beer. Wine and Spirits are second and third respectively


What is the relationship between proof and actual alcohol content?

Proof is the alcohol content doubled (Ex: 15 % alcohol content = 30 % proof)


What is the small percent of American's that consume most of the countries alcohol?

50% of alcohol is consumed by 10% of the population.


What is fetal alcohol syndrome?

A cluster of physical and behavioral abnormalities seemingly caused by the mother’s use of alcohol during pregnancy. At least one of the following must be present for the diagnosis: (1) growth retardation before and or after birth (2) abnormal features of the face and head (3) evidence of CNS abnormality


What were people's attitudes about alcohol in the 1700s?

In the 1700s most people drank and liked alcoholic beverages. The view of alcohol as the cause of serious problems emerged at the time of the American Revolution.


What is Wernicke’s disease?

This is associated with deficiency of thiamine (B1) and can sometimes be corrected nutritionally. Symptoms include decline of intellect, difficulty manipulating objects, impaired problem solving, and ataxia (difficulty with coordination when walking).


What are the behaviors correlated with alcohol and crime?

The average of murderers that have been drinking is 50%. Also, 50% of murder victims have been drinking as well. Assault, spousal abuse, and child abuse all reveal correlations with alcohol use.


What is the psychological/psychosocial theory about heavy drinking?

One theory about heavy drinking proposes that social stress and tension and who approve of alcohol use have more drinking problems. A study compared the stress index and alcohol norms and found a correlation with heavy drinking.


What is the relationship between species and self administration of cocaine?

Most species will self-administer until death.


What were the animal studies related to marijuana?

The fact that it was not found to maintain self-administration suggested cannabinoids had a low abuse potential. This seems to contradict the fact it is the most widely used illicit drug in the world.