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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (162)
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1

What is today's leading killer
-disproportionally affects children

M. tuberculosis

2

-Aerobic rod-shaped bacteria
-Acid fast bacilli
-Non-motile
-Non-spore forming
-Require special conditions for growth

Mycobacteria

3

methane dyes (carbol-fuchsin, crystal violet, auramine/rhodamine) will complex with the lipid rich (waxy) cell wall, and are not removed even with ethanol/hydrochloric acid

acid fast

4

stain you put on them won't be removed with acid

acid fast

5

Mycolic Acids have _____ carbons; our lipid membranes usually have ____

70-90

16

6

how are cell wall lipids instrumental in virulence not just structural in mycobacteria

1. protects cells
2. influence host cell signalling
3. induce granuloma formation

7

mycobacterias that cause similar disease we call tuberculosis

M. tuberculosis (37 C in 12-28 days)
M. bovis (37 C in 21-40 days)
M. africanum (37 C in 21-40 days)

8

mycobacteria agent of leprosy

M. leprae

9

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)

"atypical"
-All environmental mycobacteria
-M. ulcerans (agent of buruli ulcer)

10

appearance of Photochromogens NTM

orange with light

*Produce carotenoids when exposed to light

11

appearance of Scotochromogens NTM

always orange

12

appearance of Nonchromogens NTM

buff color

13

ex. of Photochromogens NTM and their growing conditions

M. kansasii = grows at 37 C in 10-21 days

M. marinum

14

ex. of Scotochromogens NTM and their growing condition

M. scrofulaceum, M. gordonae , 37 C in 10-28 day

15

ex. of Nonchromogens NTM and their growing conditions

M. avium/M. intracellulare, 37 C in 10-21 days

M. ulcerans

16

ex. of rapid growers NTM and their growing conditions

M. fortuitum, M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. mucogenicum
grow at 37 C in 3-7 days

17

Reservoir for NTM (“atypical”)

ubiquitous; water, soil, animals

18

presents with hx of swollen lymph nodes that don't improve w/ antibiotics

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis usually caused by ____

M. avium/intracellulare.

Also M. kansasii, M. scrofulaceum

19

bacteria described in pedicure outbreaks

Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria

20

Post surgical disease caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria

M. fortuitum,
M. abscessus,
M. chelonae

21

cultivated in mouse footpads only, takes a long time

M. leprae

22

attenuated M. bovis

M. bovis BCG

23

presents with:
Multiple lesions
Destructive
Multibacillary*
Contagious
DHS -

Lepromatous leprosy (mycobacteria)

24

Presents with:
Single lesions
Nerve and skin
Paucibacillary*
Not highly contagious
DHS +

tuberculoid leprosy (mycobacteria)

25

immune response to leprosy

1. lepromatous
2. middle stage (contained/resolved infection w/o symptoms)
3. Tuberculoid

26

vaccine for leprosy

M. bovis BCG

27

Reservoir for M. leprae

humans
(Amoeba? Well water? Armadillo?)

28

transmission of M. leprae

human to human

*armadillos are a reservoir in the wild, and may transmit to humans

29

Buruli ulcer

M. ulcerans

30

no granulomas in pathology

Generally painless, afebrile, non-granulomatous, primarily fat necrosis

M. ulcerans