What is a vowel?
The core, nucleus or peak of the syllable.
What are the 3 kinds of vowels / diphthongs?
Simple vowels, diphthongized vowels, and phonemic vowels (true diphthongs).
What is a simple vowel?
A vowel without an accompanying glide movement.
What is a diphthongized vowel?
A vowel with an adjacent glide. Off glide is not necessary for the phoneme.
What is a phonemic diphthong?
A vowel sound followed by a nonadjacent glide. Off glide is necessary.
What is a diphthong?
Two adjacent vowel sounds in the same syllable (gliding vowels).
What are the three true diphthongs?
/ay/ /aw/ /ɔy/
What 4 parameters should be discussed when talking about vowels / diphthongs?
Height (high, mid, low), Frontness (front, central, back), tenseness (lax or tense) and round vs. unround
What is an open syllable?
A syllable without a final consonant sound.
What is a closed syllable?
A syllable with a final consonant.
What types of vowels are sonorant?
Glides, liquids, and nasals.
What does /l/ and /r/ coloring refer to?
Dark vs light /r/ and /l/.
What symbol is used over nasalized vowels?
Squiggly line (like the ñ)
What is a reduced vowel?
A vowel with diminished phonetic qualities that can occur in unstressed syllables (ie the barred i and schwa)
What does citation form refer to?
The way a word is pronounced when spoken carefully and in isolation.
What does reduced form refer to?
Tthe version of the word that usually occurs in natural speech.
What is a boundary?
The end of a phonological domain.
What three positions make up a syllable structure?
peak (nucleus), onset (syllable initial), coda (syllable final).
In English, how many vowel sounds can there be in a sequence?
What other factors (besides tense or lax) affect vowel length?
If a syllable is open or closed, stressed or unstressed, and ends in a voiced or voiceless consonant.
What are function words?
Words that signify grammatical relationships… articles, prepositions, etc.
What are content words?
Words that carry meaning… nouns, adjectives, etc.
What do we call massive sound change affecting the long vowels of English during the Middle English Period?
The Great Vowel Shift.
What is the vowel trapezoid?
A stylized representation of the mouth.
What is the term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries?
What is the main function of adjustment of connected speech?
To promote rhythm and maintain regular timing.
What do we call a word formed by omitting or combining some of the sounds of a longer phrase, usually marked by an apostrophe?
What do you call a word made by combining two words? (fog + smoke = smog)
Gonna, wanna, and hafta are examples of….?
When you connect the final sound of one word or syllable to the initial sound of the next (ex: you pronounce “i will be in the park” as “i will beyin the park”, it is called ….?
What is ambisyllabic?
Whan the consonant in a VC + V sequence is pronounced as if it belongs to both vowels (dog eat dog world)
Give an example of resyllabification.
Lef / tarm.
His shirt, pronounced Hishirt is an example of what?
What is metathesis?
When sounds get switched around (curd / crud).
What are the three types of assimilation?
Progressive, regressive, and coalescent.
When a given sound takes on one or more of the characteristics of the neighboring sound, it’s called … ?
What is palatalization?
Tthe most frequent type of coalescent assimilation, during which the final alveolar consonants /s,z,t,d/ are followed by the initial palatal /y/ (ex: issue)
What is deletion?
The process whereby sounds disappear or are not clearly articulated.
What are the 4 types of deletion?
Apocope – word final deletion (cup of tea), Syncope – loss of unstressed medial vowel (chocolate), Aphaeresis - word initial deletion (knife) and Aphesis – loss of an unstressed word initial vowel or syllable in highly informal speech (‘cause).
Why do Puerto Rican ESL students often say /puʃ/ for /pʊʃ/ —that is, why might they (seem to) have difficulty pronouncing /ʊ/?
Because Spanish does not have lax vowels.
What do the two little triangles symbolize?
That the vowel is long.
How many strongly stressed syllables can a word in English have?
Why are vowels so problematic?
Because most spellings are from the Middle English period before the great vowel shift
Vowels are classified as voiced or voiceless? Why?
The are ALL voiceless because the airstream is unobstructed
What is off glide ?
V+ glide … A transitional sound produced as the vocal organs more from a previous speech sound to an inactive position or the position of a following sound
Mention the LAX vowels
ɛ ʊ ɪ ɨ ə ʌ æ
Mention the TENSE vowels
iy ey ay a aw uw ow ɔy ɔ
What is a tense vowel?
A vowel articulated with more tension. Accompanied by a glide. Occur in both open and closed syllables and usually have longer duration
What are LAX vowels?
Are vowels articulated with more relaxed muscles. In monosyllabic they only occur in closed syables. Shorter duration.
What is always needed to close a stressed syllable?
Linking is also known as?
What is a near geminate?
A lengthened articulation … When you make the geminate sound with duration… Like (his shirt)
What is an unreleased consonant?
When a stop consonant is followed by another stop the first stop is not released. Like (soap dish)
What is miscellaneous?
Loos of the first /r/ as in surprise
What is clipping?
Reduction of longer forms like (laboratory)= lab
Reduced vowels clarification
In unstressed syllables are very short I’m duration, sometimes they will even disappear like ‘nursery’