What is phonotactics?
It is concerned with freedoms and restrictions that language allows in terms of syllable structure. (Where sounds can occur in words and in what clusters.)
Name one suprasegmental phoneme?
stress (INsult and inSULT)
What is prosody?
The study of features such as pitch variation and duration, which affect the syllable, the foot and larger domains.
What is stress?
The relative prominence of syllables.
How many levels of lexical stress are there in English when referring to isolated words? What are the levels called and what symbols are used to indicate these levels?
3 levels… primary ‘; secondary , ; and unstressed
What is the max number of strongly (primary) stressed syllables that a word can have in English?
Stressed syllables in English are characterized by their greater loudness (prominence or intensity). What other features are often associated with stressed syllables in English?
Duration (length) and higher tone (pitch).
What do linguists mean when they say that English has stress-timed rhythm?
A type of rhythm where stressed syllables tend to occur at equal intervals of time.
What is intonation?
The use of pitch variation in phrases and sentences to signal such things as speaker attitudes, sentence type (e.g. statement vs question), and information structure. Intonation is different to lexical tone, in that it does not signal differences of word meaning, but contributes to the interpretation of utterances.
How many levels of pitch (tone) are used in English tone units?
Why is punctuation an unreliable guide to intonation?
An uninverted question ends with a period but has rising utterance -final tone. For example: Irma won the lottery. said with 2-1*-3➚
What is an utterance?
An utterance is a natural unit of speech bounded by breaths or pauses.
An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by the speaker’s silence.
What is a clipped form?
It’s when you take a long word and cut it (mathematics - math).
What is epenthesis?
When you add a vowel to a word to make it easier to say (espaguetti).
What are the 3 main factors that influence stress placement?
Historical origin, changes brought about by afixation (prefix and suffix) and the word’s grammatical function within an utterance.
Word origins (anglosaxon)
Stressed on the first syllable of the word’s root.
a-, for-, mis-, up-, under-
a(d)-, com-, dis-, in-, pre-
Where do words that contain prefixes receive the stress?
Regardless of the origin, they contain it in the first syllable of the root.
Prefix + Verb has _____ stress on the prefix.
Light! (Don’t overload the truck.)
Prefix + Noun has _____ stress on the prefix.
Strong! (Your computer’s on overload.)
What are the types of suffixes?
Stress-neutral (-dom), stress-demanding (-aire), and stress-changing (penult, like in -nation, and antepenult, like in -geography).
What are other types of suffixes?
Reflexive (-self and -selves), numbers (tens vs teens), noun/verb pairs (PROject, proJECT).
Where is the stress in a noun compound?
The first element
Adj + Noun compound VS Adj + Noun sequence
blackbird vs black bird
What are the three patterns in phrasal verbs?
- verb head - stress particle (LOOK at, apPROVE of) 2. verb head + stress particle (FIGure OUT, DROP OFF), 3. verb head + stress particle - stress particle (RUN aWAY with, WALK OUT on)
What is sentence stress?
It refers to te various stressed elements in the sentence.
What is rhythm?
Word and sentence stress combined to create the rhythm of an English utterance; the regular patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables.
In what three way is English stress-timed?
1) English moves in regular rhythmic beats from stress to stress no matter how many unstressed syllables fall in between. 2) The length of an utterance depends not on the # of syllables but rather on the # of stresses. 3) Basis for metrical foot in English poetry.
Why is Spanish rhythm syllable-timed?
The rhythm depends on the # of syllables.
How does the type of word affect stress?
Function words are usually unstressed and consonant words are usually stressed.
What is morphology?
The study of the smallest unit of meaning that cannot be subdivided without making the unit meaningless.
What are the 2 types of morphology?
Inflectional (grammatical endings), derivational (build words by compounding, conversion, and affixation).
What is morphophonolgy?
The connection between the sound system and morphology (a book, an apple)
When is the inflectional suffix -s pronounced like /iz/ or shwa z?
When the noun or verb ends in a sibilant consonant. For ex: plural (buses), 3rd person singular (uses), possessive (Rose’s friend).
When is the inflectional suffix pronounced just /z/?
When the reg noun or verb ends in a voiced non-sibilant sound (all vowels and diphthongs). Ex: plural (boys), 3rd person (sees), possessive (rays)
When is the inflectional suffix -s realized as /s/?
When the reg noun or verb in a voiceless non-sibilant consonant. Ex: plural (boats), 3rd person (bakes), possessive (Pete’s).
What happens when a regular verb ends in /d/ or /t/ and the verb is being put in the past tense? Ex. add -> added
it takes an epenthetic vowel which results in an additional syllable.
What happens when a regular verb ends in a voiced sound other than /d/ and the verb is being put in the past tense? Ex. grab —> grabbed
The ending undergoes progressive assimilation and is pronounce /d/.
What happens when a regular verb ends in a voiceless consonant other than /t/ and the verb is being put in the past tense? Ex. walk –> walked
The ending also undergoes progressive assimilation and is pronounced /t/.
How do you learn irregular noun plurals or irregular verbs?
YOU MEMORIZE THEM.