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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (42)
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1

For dog, which valves are auscultated on the left at:
1) apex
2) base

apex--mitral valve
base--pulmonary and aortic

2

Most common congenital defect in dogs?

PDA

3

What happens with each heart sound?

S1--AV valve close
S2-- semilunar valves close

S3--ventricular filling
S4--atrial contraction

4

Which abnormal heart sound is heard in:
1) dogs with DCM
2) Cats with HCM
3) normal horses

1) S3
2) S4
3) S4

5

Split S2 sound is associated with what pathological condition?

pulmonary hypertension

6

Name the pressures in:
1) RA
2) RV
3) Pulmonary artery
4) LA
5) LV
6) aorta

1) 0/3 (avg. 5)
2) 25/0
3) 25/10
4) 2/5 (avg. 10)
5) 120/0
6) 120/80

7

Name the 2 causes of murmurs

1) pressure difference between chambers

2) increased reynold's number

8

Name 3 characteristics of a puppy murmur

1) SOFT (grade II/III or less)
2) left basilar, systolic
3) gone by 16weeks

9

Most common cause of heart murmur in:
1) cats
2) dogs

1) SAM & DR.VOTO

2) mitral valve disease

10

What do SAM and DR.VOTO stand for?

systolic anterior motion of mitral valve

dynamic right ventricular outflow tract obstruction

11

Two causes of syncope

1) arrhythmias
2) pulmonary hypertension

12

Most common acquired heart disease in dogs?

MMVD (myxomatous mitral valve degeneration)

13

Name the 3 layers of the mitral valve and what they contain

1) atrialis--elastin
2) spongiosa--proteoglycan
3) fibrosa--collagen

14

What is myxomatous degeneration?

when the leaflets become thickened and nodular

15

two examples of functional mitral regurgitation (MR)

1) enlarged mitral valve annulus (with DCM)

2) systolic anterior motion (SAM) with HCM

16

Severity of MMVD is determined by?

size of the left atrium

17

What 3 things can be used to monitor CHF?

1) sleeping respiratory rate
2) chest x-ray
3) kidney panel

18

Name 4 categories of drugs used when treating CHF

1) diuretic
2) ACE inhibitor
3) positive inotrope
4) vasodilator

19

Type of hypertrophy seen with:
1) pressure overload
2) volume overload

1) concentric
2) eccentric

20

What type of arrhythmias are most common with DCM?

Ventricular

21

This is the ECG finding associated with DCM

LBBB

*DCM is most common cause of LBBB*

22

ARVC is due to a mutation in what gene?

Striatin

23

How is ARVC staged?

1) sidedness (echo)
2) arrhythmias (holter)

24

What 4 phases make up diastole?

Isovolumetric relaxation
Rapid inflow
Diastasis
Atrial contraction

25

Which phases of diastole are active processes?

Isovolumetric relaxation
Atrial contraction

26

What are the 2 phases of systole?

isovolumetric contraction
ejection

*Both are active processes*

27

Describe how CO is affected with:
1) tachyarrhythmias
2) bradyarrhythmias

1) higher HR, less filling time, lower SV--> overall lower CO

2) lower HR, more filling time, increased SV-->overall lower CO

28

Name 4 factors that can affect stroke volume

incompetent AV valve
incompetent aortic valve
LV contractility
Afterload

29

Which protein is responsible for preventing actin & myosin interaction

Tropomyosin

30

Which ion pump is important for maintaining RMP?

Na/K ATPase

(3Na out/2K in)

31

With the Na-Ca exchanger, these ions always move in the same or opposite direction?

OPPOSITE

32

Voltage-gated channels allow ions to move ______ their concentration gradient

down

33

What channel, present in ventricular muscle, is absent in SA node & AV node?

Fast Na channels

(depolarization=Ca ions)

34

What channels are lacking in atrial muscle cells?

lack a significant Ca channel population

35

What must occur for SERCA to be able to put Ca back into the SR

Phospholamban must be phosphorylated by calmodulin kinase

36

Which to vessels are connected by a PDA

descending aorta
main pulmonary artery

37

PDA presents with what type of murmur?

Left basilar continuous

38

When is surgical closure of PDA not an option?

when the shunting is right to left

39

What ECG findings would be suggestive of SAS?

High R wave amplitude (RVE)
LV origin VPCs
ST segment depression (indicates endocardial ischemia)

40

Name 3 treatments indicated for SAS

Chronic beta-blocker therapy
Anti-arrhythmic therapy
balloon valvuloplasty

41

Majority of cases are what grade of PS?

Grade 2 (moderate to severe thickening)

42

This drug helps with R to left shunting by stimulating pulmonary arterial vasodilation

Sildenafil