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1

Time period of the Classical era

1750-1820

2

Form

organization of musical elements in time

3

symphony

genre of music

4

Haydn's duties

- compose music
- conduct performances
- train and supervise musical personnel
- keep musical instruments in repair

5

What was each composer known for?

Haydn- known for cortets
Mozart- known for his operas
Beethoven- known for his symphonies

6

Musical capital of the classical era

Vienna

7

Beethoven wrote how many symphonies?

9

8

Who is responsible for starting the romantic era of music?

Beethoven

9

What was Haydn's title?

skilled servant

10

What was Mozart's title?

child prodigy

11

Mozart wrote how many symphonies?

40

12

Haydn wrote how many symphonies?

104

13

Where does opera start?

Florence, Italy

14

Classical

the term is applied to the mature style of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Classical also suggests the time of ancient Greece and Rome, which shares many attributes with this period.

15

types of form

1. sonata form
2. theme and variations
3. minuet and trio
4. Rondo

16

sonata form

refers to form of a single movement ternary form (ABA)- 3 main sections

17

3 sections of sonata form

- Exposition- intital statement of 1st and 2nd themes
- Development- tension building section, theme broken into fragments-motives
- Recapulation- resolution of tension, re-statement of 1st and 2nd themes

18

single part form

no large contrasting "B" section (A A' A"), basic idea presented and then repeated over and over

19

ternary form

based upon stately court dance of the Baroque

20

rondo

features a main theme that keeps coming back

21

coda

tag

22

idee fixe

fixed idea

23

Symphonie fantastique and other works made Berlioz what?

the leader of the radicals

24

Who is responsible for starting the romantic era of music?

Beethoven

25

Originality of Symphonie fantastique

- Using a symphony for a narrative
- Unifying a work through a recurring theme and thematic transformation
- Use of an astonishing array of instrumental colors

26

Don Giovanni

Both types can be seen in the opening scene.
Leporello opens the scene complaining in an opera-buffa style.
Donna Anna and Don Giovanni sing in a dramatic opera-seria style, while Leporello frets in a buffa style.
The ensuing duel ends in a death, a shocking scene in a comic opera.
A powerful trio laments the turn of events.
At the end, Don Giovanni and Leporello revert to comic banter.

27

The Eroica Symphony, No. 3 in E-flat Major (1803–4)

The first movement can be seen as a story of challenge, struggle, and victory.
The first theme, a triadic fanfare, ends with a surprising C-sharp.
The theme is subject to various adventures, but eventually it triumphs.
Syncopations, heard near the beginning, reach a terrifying climax in the development.
An early entrance in the horn prior to the recapitulation creates a dominant-tonic conflict.

28

Symphonie fantastique (1830)

Berlioz employs a recurring melody, which he called the idée fixe (“fixed idea”)
The theme appears in each movement representing the hero’s beloved.
The theme is transformed to suit the mood and situation of the story.
It is first heard as the extended first theme of the first movement.