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Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (58)
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1

Individual self

Subjective uniqueness

2

Relational self

Connections with other people, immediate bond

3

Collective self

Relation to broader group, membership, self-concept

4

What age is self-recognition discovered?

18-24 months (toddler), Rouge test

5

Growth mindset

More improvement when praised for process/effort instead of intelligence

6

Regard to racial and ethnic identity (Sellers)- dimension

Possess strengths because you are a member of an ethnic group

7

Centrality to racial and ethnic identity (Sellers)-dimension

Ethnic group is an important reflection of who you are

8

Phinney on racial and ethnic identity

Identity development statuses (differs between races)

9

Parent vs peer talk

Parents: talk about mental states

Peers: talk about shared interests and goals, pretend play, dispute resolution

10

Downsides of understanding others (2)

1. Lying
2. Skepticism

11

What age do stereotypes and prejudice begin?

5-6 years, shift around 7-9 years

Stereotype consciousness by 8-9 years

12

Implicit processes

Remain stable along life, ex: who pushed who off the swing (races differ)

13

What years do family members become most important for teaching skills?

Preschool years

14

Interdependence in families

Changes in the behavior of one family member affect all family members

15

3 components of family system

1. Couple relationship
2. Parent-child relationship
3. Sibling relationship

16

Parent-child system: 2 dimensions

1. Emotionality
2. Control

17

Emotionality

Warm & responsive vs rejecting & unresponsive

18

Control

Restrictive & demanding vs permissive & undemanding

19

Authoritarian parent-child outcome

Child is impulsive, aggressive, lack of independence, unable to take responsibility

20

Uninvolved parent-child outcome

Child has poor emotion regulation and school achievement, antisocial behavior

21

Authoritative parent-child outcome

Child is socially responsible, independent, able to control aggression, self-confident, and has high self-esteem

22

Neglectful parent-child outcome

Child has insecure attachment, poor cognitive development, and poor coal and emotional skills

23

Parent factors for different styles

Quality of relationship with other parent, personality, mental health, beliefs about child development, family life circumstance

24

Child factors for different styles

Temperament

25

Transactional relationships

Parent-child relationships are reciprocal

26

How do adolescents see parents?

Authoritarian or permissive

27

How do mothers see themselves?

Authoritative (rarely authoritarian or permissive)

28

How do fathers see themselves?

Authoritarian

29

3 coparenting patterns

1. Cooperative: cohesive, child-centered
2. Hostile-competitive: compete for child's attention
3. Imbalanced: different investments, gatekeeping

30

What percent of families in U.S. have more than one child?

80%

31

First born characteristics

More helpful, self-controlled, studious, more fearful or anxious

32

Later born characteristics

Less fearful & anxious & guilty, higher self-esteem, confidence, more social

33

Only children characteristics

Similarities to both, high-achievers, less anxious, more leadership

34

Gottman's Love lab "Four horsemen of the apocalypse"

1. Criticism
2. Contempt
3. Defensiveness
4. Stonewalling

35

Magic ratio

5:1- positive/negative

36

Older parents

Mothers more responsible and enjoy parenting. Fathers more involved

37

Onlooker behavior

Just watch or converse (1-2 years)

38

Parallel play

Play side by side, but not engage (2-3 years)

39

Associative play

Play with other, but don't have same goals (3-5 years)

40

Cooperative play

Engage in play and cooperate, reciprocate, and share common goal

41

Reputational bias

Children's tendency to interpret peer's behavior on the basis of past encounters with and feeling about them

42

Social Information processing theory steps (6)

1. Encode cues
2. Interpret cues
3. Clarify goals
4. Review possible actions
5. Decide on an action
6. Act on decision
(Kenneth Dodge)

43

Limitations to social information processing theory

More applicable in new situations and for those with higher temperament control

44

Consequences of peer rejection

Short term: loneliness
Long term: difficulties in school & emotional problems

45

Factors predicting reaction to rejection (6)

1. Clarity of rejecting child's communication
2. Identity of rejecting child
3. Consistency of rejection
4. Personality of rejected child
5. Behavior of rejected child
6. Social support of rejected child

46

5 friendship patterns

1. Rotation
2. Growth
3. Decline
4. Static
5. Friendless

47

Parker & Asher on pros and cons of friendship

• ↓ acceptance = ↑ loneliness
• Have very best friend = ↓ loneliness
• ↑ friendship quality = ↓ loneliness

48

Rose on pros and cons of frienship

More co-rumination with girls than boys

49

Impact of extracurricular activities (3)

1. Academics and education
2. Fewer antisocial behaviors
3. Psychosocial functioning

50

Five C's relating to extracurricular activities

1. Competence
2. Confidence
3. Connection
4. Character
5. Caring
--> Contributions

51

Jigsaw Classroom

Cooperative learning, split kids into groups and each learns something and teaches it others

52

Encouraging diverse friendships organization (4)

1. Interaction is cooperative
2. All backgrounds "come in" with equal status
3. Everyone is working toward a joint goal
4. Students feel like teachers support friendships

53

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Teacher's expectations --> teacher's behavior --> expectations --> student's behavior

54

Boyatzis, Matillo, & Nesbitt (1995) on media

Assigned kids to watch Power Rangers vs control group, only affected boys

55

6 factors influence whether and to what extent children imitate TV aggression

1. Likability of the perpetrators
2. Justification of the violence
3. How real it appears to be
4. How prolonged or intense the experience is
5. Whether the violence lacks consequences
6. The co-occurrence of violence and humor

56

What scares children (by age)

Young children: immediate sights and sounds, loss
Older children: abstract threats, social stress

57

Co-viewing benefits

Helps children understand and interpret programs, express disapproval, take perspective of victims

58

Prosociality

Certain TV programs (especially for young children) have educational and prosocial benefit