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Flashcards in Exam #3 Deck (74)
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1

Sex

Genetic/biological component

2

Gender

Behavioral, cultural, and psychological component

3

Gender identity

Perception of oneself as male or female (or transgender), closely tied to gender roles

4

Gender-typed behavior/gender roles

Behavior that matches what is socially or culturally typical for one's gender

5

Gender stereotypes

Cultural beliefs about gender differences in behaviors or attributes

6

Evolutionary theory

Males and females need different strategies to enhance survival of the species, adaptive behaviors passed down through genes

7

Limitations of evolutionary theory

Hard to test, does not account for individual differences or recent rapid changes in gender roles, does not explain cultural differences in gender roles, limited role of environment

8

Social Cognitive Theory

Children engage in observational learning about gender from models, receive feedback from environment (rewards and punishments)

9

Gender Schema Theory

Once a child has a sense of their own gender identity, they develop schemas to organize and structure their experiences

10

Martin and Halverson (1983)

Drawings of children involved in gender "consistent" and "inconsistent" activities, children better at remembering consistent pictures

11

Social cognitive theory vs gender schema theory

Social-places more emphasis on emotion, motivation, and environment
Gender-places more emphasis on cognitive (child's perspective)

12

Liben and Bigler (2002)

Explicit measure, 9-13 year olds, more than half of traits viewed as applying to only one gender

13

Bian, Leslie, & Cimpian (2017)

Smart game vs try-hard game
5,6,7 years: interested in really smart
6 years: less interested in really smart game

14

3 components of moral development

1. Cognitive
2. Behavioral
3. Emotional

15

Piaget's Cognitive Theory of Moral Judgment (3 stages)

1. Premoral stage
2. Moral Realism
3. Moral Reciprocity

16

Premoral stage

Young children, show little concern for or awareness or rules

17

Moral Realism

5 years old, concern about rules that come from some form of authority, rules viewed as unchanging and shouldn't be questioned

18

Moral Reciprocity

11 years old, social rules viewed as arbitrary agreements that can be questioned and changed

19

Limitations of Piaget's theory

Findings do not generalize to other cultures, underestimates children's abilities

20

Immanent justice

Deviation from rules=punishment

21

Kohlberg's Cognitive Theory of Moral Judgment (3 levels)

1. Preconventional
2. Conventional
3. Postconventional

22

Preconventional Level and stages

Justification for behavior is based on desire to avoid punishment (stage 1) and gain rewards (stage 2)

23

Conventional Level and stages

Based on motive to conform, either to get approval from others (stage 3) or to follow society's rules and conventions (stage 4)

24

Postconventional Level and stages

Judgments are controlled by an internalized ethical code that is relatively independent of the approval or disapproval of others
Stage 5: based on society's consensus about human rights
Stage 6: based on abstract principles of justice and equality

25

Limitations of Kohlberg's theory

Data is based only on verbal responses to interviews, hypothetical dilemmas differ from real-life dilemmas

26

Turiel's Social Domain Theory (2 domains)

1. Social Conventional
2. Psychological

27

Social Conventional Domain

-Social expectations that help facilitate smooth and efficient functioning of a social system (ex: normals, ways of greeting, etiquette, reciprocity)
-Moral violations are consistently viewed as worse than social convention violations

28

Psychological Domain

An understanding of self and others as psychological systems
-Personal issues: only affect self
-Prudent issues: immediate physical consequences for self
-Psychological issues: involve beliefs and knowledge of self and others

29

What age can children understand right vs wrong?

16 months

30

What age can children justify their actions?

3 years

31

3 phases of moral behavior

1. Control phase: children depend on adults
2. Self-control phase: children comply with adults' expectations even in absence
3. Self-regulation phase: children use strategies and plans to direct their own behavior

32

What age is guilt experienced?

Age 2, can recognize guilt in others at age 5

33

Prosocial behavior

Conduct intended to help or benefit other people

34

Altruistic behavior

Intrinsically motivated conduct intended to help others without expectation or acknowledgment or reward

35

Prosocial reasoning levels (5)

1. Hedonistic
2. Needs-oriented
3. Approval-seeking
4. Empathic & Transitional
5. Internalized

36

Hedonistic

Concerned with self-oriented consequences

37

Needs-oriented

Expresses concern for physical, material, and psychological needs of others even if they conflict with own needs

38

Approval-seeking

Uses stereotyped images of good and bad and consideration of others' approval and acceptance

39

Empathic

Sympathetic responding, self-reflective role taking, concern with other's humanness, and guilt or positive affect related to consequences of actoins

40

Transitional

Justifications for helping or not involve internalized values, norms, or responsibilities

41

Internalized

Justifications for helping or not are based on internalized values, norms, or responsibilities, the desire to maintain individual and societal contractual obligations, and the belief in the dignity, rights, and equality of all individuals

42

Determinants of prosocial development (2)

1. Biological
2. Environmental/Cultural: watching and imitating models

43

Aggression

Behavior that is intended to and in fact does harm another person by inflicting pain or injury

44

Proactive aggression

Behavior in which a person is hurt or injured by someone who is motivated by a desire to achieve a specific goal

45

Reactive aggression

A form of hostile behavior in response to an attack, threat, or frustration, usually motivated by anger

46

3 forms of aggression

1. Physical
2. Verbal
3. Relational

47

Expressions of Aggression (2)

1. Direct- directly targets another person
2. Indirect-unidentified perpetrator that hurts another person by indirect means

48

Over time:
-Proactive
-Reactive
-Physical
-Relational
-Direct
-Indirect

Proactive=decreases
Reactive=increases
Physical=decreases
Relational=increases
Direct=decreases
Indirect=increases

49

Low MAOA gene

High antisocial behavior

50

High MAOA gene

Low antisocial behavior

51

Bullying

Use of aggression against weaker individuals to gain status or power

52

Victimization

Process of being threatened or harmed on a consistent basis by a more powerful peer

53

Passive victims

Anxious or weak and respond non-aggressively to bullying

54

Proactive victims

Engage in aggressive behavior when attacked; provoke and irritate other children

55

Social policy

A set of planned actions to solve a social problem or attain a social goal

56

Public policy

Government-based social policy

57

Aims and purposes of a policy (4)

1. Provide info
2. Provide or call for funding
3. Provide or call for services and programs, intervene
4. Provide infrastructure

58

Policy making process determined by 3 things

1. Historical era (role of children)
2. Funding available (federal vs state vs local)
3. Research base

59

Policy making process

Scholarly research --> controlled application --> accepted practice --> policy reports

60

3 types of public policy

1. Primary (all)
2. Secondary (some)
3. Tertiary (few)

61

Primary policy

Reduce new cases of problem behavior

62

Secondary policy

Reduce current cases of problem behavior

63

Tertiary policy

Reduce complications, intensity, severity of current cases

64

Policy: Head start

Federally funded preschool program, benefits in academic and behavioral outcomes for children, reaches less than half of eligible children

65

Carolina Abecedarian Project

Full time high quality educational setting for children from infancy through 5 years + parent education

66

Policy: TANF

Cash assistance to families for basic needs, increases in parent employment rates and psychological wellbeing, but no decreases in poverty

67

3 types of child care

1. Care in own home
2. Family child care home
3. Center-based care

68

Characteristics of quality child care (8)

1. Adequate physical space
2. Plenty of materials
3. Good caregiver-to-child ratio (1 adult per 3-4 infants)
4. Balance structure and free time
5. Educated caregivers
6. Low staff turnover
7. Accreditation
8. Cultural sensitivity and educational philosophy

69

Florida child care quality improvement study

Mandated smaller child-to-caregiver ratios, higher caregiver education requirements

70

Child abuse

Physical injury or maltreatment by a responsible person so child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened

71

Child neglect

Failure of a parent or other caregiver to provide for a child's basic needs

72

Most common factors that lead to child abuse

-Distressed and unsatisfying couple relationship
-History abuse in the family

73

Nurse-Family partnership

Focus on mothers in poverty, nurses focus on health, parenting, link to services, successful at reducing cases of abuse and neglect

74

SafeCare

Parent training curriculum for parents at risk or have been reported for child maltreatment with child from birth to age 5