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The CNS's physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one's well-being. Symptoms include an increase in respiration, perspiration, muscle tension, etc.



The CNS's physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of a threat or danger. Symptoms include an increase in respiration, perspiration, muscle tension, etc.


Generalized Anxiety Disorder

A disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities.
Diagnosis: Excessive anxiety undermost circumstances, pervasive worry, symptoms last at least 6 months: restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, muscle tension, and/or sleep problems. Onset often in childhood/adolescence.


Client-Centered Therapy / Person-Centered Therapy

The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing accurately, and conveying genuineness.


Basic Irrational Assumptions

The inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems, according to Albert Ellis.


The Sociocultural Perspective for GAD

GAD is most likely to develop in people faced with truly dangerous social conditions. Higher rates in lower SES groups.


The Psychodynamic Perspective for GAD

Freud says all children experience anxiety
(realistic anxiety- faced with an actual threat,
neurotic anxiety- prevented from expressing your id impulses,
moral anxiety- when your parents punish you for expressing your id impulses.
GAD may develop if a child faces high levels of anxiety or has inadequate defense mechanisms.
Research shows that those who use more defense mechanisms (repression) and are more punished develop GAD.
Treatments: free association, therapist interpretations of transference, resistance, and dreams. Freudians focus on control of id, object-relations: help patients identify and settle early relationship problems.


The Humanistic Perspective for GAD

GAD results when people stop looking at themselves honestly and acceptingly. Carl Rogers' explanation: lack of "unconditional positive regard" in childhood leads to "conditions of worth" (harsh self-standards). These threatening self-judgments break through and cause anxiety, setting the stage for GAD to develop.
Treatment: "client-centered" approach, but limited research support for treatment effectiveness and Rogers' explanation of GAD/abnormal behavior.


The Cognitive Perspective for GAD

Initially, thought GAD caused by maladaptive assumptions. Albert Ellis identified basic irrational assumptions: "It's a dire necessity for an adult to be loved/approved of by virtually every significant person in his community" and "It's awful and catastrophic when things aren't the way one would very much like them to be." GAD may develop when assumptions are applied to everyday life and to more and more events. Aaron Beck: silent assumptions of imminent danger.
Newer theories: Metacognitive theory (Wells) - the most problematic assumptions in GAD are the individual's worry about worrying (meta-worry);
Intolerance of Uncertainty theory - certain individuals consider it unacceptable that negative events may occur, even if there's a very small chance, worry is an effort to find "correct" solutions;
Avoidance theory (Borkovec) - worrying serves a "positive" funciton for those with GAD by reducing unusually high levels of bodily arousal. They worry repeatedly to avoid/reduce uncomfortable states of bodily arousal.


Therapies for GAD from Cog. Pers.

Ellis's rational-emotive therapy (RET) - point out irrational assumptions, suggest more appropriate assumptions, assign related homework (goal is to do something you think you can't do), studies suggest at least modest relief from treatment.
Educate clients about the role of worrying in GAD and their bodily arousal and cognitive responses, clients become better at identifying their worry and attempts to control things by worrying. With practice, clients are expected to see the world as less threatening, adopt more constructive ways of coping, worry less.


Family Pedigree Study

A research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder.



The most common group of antianxiety drugs (like xanax and valium). Provides temporary relief, rebound anxiety if you stop taking it, and physical dependency.
Binds to GABA receptors to increase the ability of GABA to bind to hem as well to decrease anxiety.


Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy

Therapists help clients become aware of their streams of thoughts, including their worries, as they are occurring and to accept such thoughts as mere events of the mind. Mindfulness involves being in the present moment, intentionally and nonjudgementally.


The Biological Perspective for GAD

Believe that GAD is caused chiefly by biological factors. Issue of causal relationship between anxiety and physiological responses. Supported by family pedigree studies. The closer the relative, the greater the likelihood. In normal fear rxns, key neurons fire more rapidly, creating a general state of excitability experienced as fear/anxiety. A feedback system is triggered and brain and body activities work together to reduce excitability like releasing GABA to inhibit neuron firing, thereby reducing experience of fear/anxiety. Malfunctioning in the feedback system is believed to cause GAD, maybe because too little or ineffective receptors.
The brain circuit that helps produce anxiety rxns, are the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex.



An inhibitory NT whose low activity has been linked to GAD.


Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs

Drugs that calm people at lower doses and help them fall asleep at higher doses.


Relaxation Training

A treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so that they can calm themselves in stressful situations. Physical relaxation leads to psychological relaxation.



A technique in which a client is given info about their physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily. Modest effort, greatest impact when combined with other methods.


Electromyograph (EMG)

A device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body.



A persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation. May develop into GAD when a person acquires a large number of phobias.


Specific Phobia

A severe and persistent fear of a specific object or situation.



A fear of venturing into public places or situations where escape might be difficult or help, unavailable, should they experience panic of become incapacitated. Typically develops in 20s-30s. Pervasive and complex and people also get panic disorder with this (comorbid).


The Behavioral Perspective for Phobias

Believe that people with phobias first learn to fear certain objects, situations, or events through conditioning, such as classical conditioning and modeling. Some specific phobias are much more common than others due to evolutionary factors. Behaviorists believe that after acquiring a fear response, people try to avoid what they fear. They don't get close to the dreaded objects enough to learn that the objects are really quite harmless.


Stimulus Generalization

A phenomenon in which responses to one stimulus are also produced by similar stimuli.



A predisposition to develop certain fears. Transmitted genetically through an evolutionary process.


Exposure Treatment

Behavioral treatments in which persons are exposed to objects or situations they dread.


Systematic Desensitization

A behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread.



A treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and intensively to a feared object and made to see that it's actually harmless.


Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)

A severe and persistent fear of social and performance situations in which embarrassment may occur. May be broad or narrow. People self-rate lower than actual performance.


Treatments for SAD

Antidepressant medications, exposure therapy, group therapy, and cognitive therapies.
Two components must be addressed: overwhelming social fear addressed and lack of social skills.


Social Skills Training

A therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role-playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors.


Panic Attacks

Periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak within minutes and gradually passes. Might include heart palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, hot and cold flashes, trembling, chest pains, choking sensations, faintness, dizziness, and a feeling of unreality. Happens in the absence of a real threat.


Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks.


The Biological Perspective for Panic Disorder

Panic disorder might be caused by abnormal norepinephrine activity in locus coeruleus. Also, produced by a brain circuit consisting of the amygdala, hippocampus, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, central gray matter, and locus coeruleus. Some ppl may inherit a predisposition to these abnormalities.



A NT responsible for arousal and alertness that is linked to panic disorder and depression.


Locus Coeruleus

A small area of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions. Many of its neurons use norepinephrine.



A small, almond-shaped brain structure that processes emotional info.


Treatments for Panic Disorder

Antidepressants, xanax and other powerful benzodiazepines, and cognitive therapies. Educate, teach clients to apply more accurate interpretations and teach client skills for coping with anxiety.


The Cognitive Perspective for Panic Disorder

In their view, full panic reactions are experienced only by people who further misinterpret the physiological events that are taking place within their bodies. They believe that panic-prone people may be very sensitive to certain bodily sensations; when they unexpectedly experience such sensations, they misinterpret them as signs of a medical catastrophe.


Biological Challenge Test

A procedure used to produce panic in participants or clients by having them exercise vigorously or perform since other potentially panic-inducing task in the presence of a researcher or therapist.


Anxiety Sensitivity

A tendency to focus on one's bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful. Panic -prone people generally have a higher degree of anxiety sensitivity.



A persistent thought, idea, impulses, or image that is experienced repeatedly, feels intrusive, and causes anxiety.
Obsessive wishes, impulses, images, ideas, or doubts.



A repetitive and rigid behavior or mental act that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety. "Voluntary," but feels mandatory.


Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

A disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a need to perform repetitive and rigid actions, or both.


The Psychodynamic Perspective for OCD

In their view, the battle between anxiety-provoking id impulses and anxiety-reducing defense mechanisms isn't buried in the unconscious but is played out in overt thoughts and actions. The id impulses usually take the form of obsessions and the ego defenses appear as compulsive actions or counterthoughts.



An ego defense mechanism in which people unconsciously isolate and disown undesirable and unwanted thoughts, experiencing them as foreign intrusions.



An ego defense mechanism whereby a person unconsciously cancels out an unacceptable desire or act by performing another act.


Reaction Formation

An ego defense mechanism whereby a person suppresses an unacceptable desire by taking on a lifestyle that expresses the opposite desire.


Exposure and Response/Ritual Prevention

A behavioral treatment for OCD that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his/her compulsive acts. Therapists often model the behavior before the client.


The Behavioral Perspective for OCD

Behaviorists have concentrated on explaining and treating compulsions rather than obsessions. Compulsions appears to be rewarded by a reduction in anxiety. In fearful situations, they happen to perform a particular act. When the threat lifts, they associate the improvement with the random act. After repeated associations, they believe the compulsion is changing the situation (bringing them luck).


The Cognitive Perspective for OCD

They point out that everyone has repetitive, unwanted, and intrusive thoughts. Anyone might have thoughts of harming others or being contaminated by germs, but most people dismiss or ignore them with ease. Those with OCD typically blame themselves for such thoughts and expect that somehow terrible things will happen, bc people with OCD tend to be more depressed, have very high standards of conduct and morality, believe thoughts are equal to actions (can bring harm).
Therapy: Focus on cognitive processes that help to produce and maintain obsessive thoughts and compulsions.



A person's attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking for behaving in ways that puts matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts. Does this by seeking reassurance, think "good" thoughts, washing, and checking. Becomes reinforced by a reduction in anxiety. Leads to obsessions or compulsions if used too much.


The Biological Perspective for OCD

OCD is linked in part to biological factors, like heritability. Also, abnormally low activity of serotonin and abnormal functioning in key regions of the brain. Use serotonin-based antidepressants for therapy.



A NT whose abnormal activity is linked to depression, OCD, and eating disorders.


Orbitofrontal Cortex

A region of the brain in which impulses involving excretion, sexuality, violence, and other primitive activities normally arise. Abnormal functioning linked to OCD.


Caudate Nuceli

Brain structures, within the basal ganglia, that help convert sensory info into thoughts and actions. Abnormal functioning linked to OCD.


Obsessive-Compulsive-Related Disorders

Disorders in which obsessive-like concerns drive people to repeatedly and excessively perform certain behaviors that disrupt their lives.
Hoarding disorder, trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder), excortiation disorder (skin-picking disorder), and body dysmorphic disorder (belief that a person has certain body defects/flaws).


Stress-Management Program

An approach to treating GAD and other anxiety disorders that teaches clients techniques for reducing and controlling stress.


Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

Combination is often more effective than either intervention alone. Psychoeducation + exposure and response prevention exercises for people with OCD.


Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

The network of nerve fibers that connect the CNS to all other organs of the body. Helps control the involuntary movements like breathing.


Endocrine System

The system of the glands located throughout the body that helps control important activities such as growth and sexual activity.


Sympathetic Nervous System

The nerve fibers of the ANS that quicken the heartbeat and produce other changes experienced as arousal and fear. May directly activate organs or indirectly by stimulating the adrenal medulla (which releases epinephrine and NE) and that activates organs to produce fear.


Parasympathetic Nervous System

The nerve fibers of the ANS that help return bodily processes to normal after being aroused.


Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Pathway

One route by which the brain and body produce arousal and fear.
Hypothalamus->Pituitary Gland->Secretion of ACTH (major stress hormone)->Adrenal Cortex->Corticosteroids (including cortisol).



A group of hormones, including cortisol, released by the adrenal glands at times of stress.


Acute Stress Disorder

A disorder in which a person experiences fear and related symptoms soon after a traumatic event but for less than a month. Onset within 4 weeks of event. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, increased arousal, guilt, and negative emotions. Arises from combat, disasters, abuse, victimization, and threat of terrorism.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A disorder in which a person continues to experience fear and related symptoms long after a traumatic event. Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, increased arousal, guilt, and negative emotions. Arises from combat, disasters, abuse, victimization, and threat of terrorism.


Rape Trauma Syndrome (RTS)

A pattern of problematic physical and psychological problems because of rape. A form of PTSD.



The use of brutal, degrading, and disorienting strategies to reduce victims to a state of utter helplessness.


Biological and Genetic Factors for Stress Disorders

Abnormal activity of the hormone cortisol and NT/hormone NE in the urine, blood, and saliva of combat soldiers, rape victims, survivors of severe stressors. Brain circuit of the hippocampus and amygdala may contribute to PTSD. A dysfunctional hippocampus may help produce the instrusive memories and constant arousal and a dysfunctional amygdala may help produce the repeated emotions and strong emotional memories.


Personality Styles for Stress Disorders

People with certain personalities, attitudes, and coping styles are particularly likely to develop PTSD. People who view life's negative events as beyond their control tend to develop more severe stress symptoms after traumatic events and people who find it difficult to derive anything positive from unpleasant situations adjust more poorly after trauma. Risk factors include preexisting high anxiety and negative worldview. Positive attitudes seem to protect against stress disorders (resiliency factors).


Childhood Experiences for Stress Disorders

Certain childhood experiences seem to leave some people at risk. Risk factors include: an impoverished childhood, psychological disorders in the family, the experience of assault, abuse, catastrophe in early age, parents separating or divorcing before age 10.


Social Support for Stress Disorders

People whose social and family support systems are weak are most likely to develop acuteSD or PTSD after a traumatic event.


Multicultural Factors for Stress Disorders

Hispanic Americans seem to be more vulnerable to the disorders. PTSD rates may differ among ethnic groups in the US.
Possible explanations: cultural beliefs about trauma or cultural emphasis on social relationships and social support.


Severity of Trauma for Stress Disorders

The severity and nature of the traumatic event that a person goes through helps determine whether the person will develop a stress disorder.


Treatment for Combat Veterans for Stress Disorders

Drugs (antianxiety and antidepressants), behavioral exposure techniques, insight therapy, virtual reality therapy, and family and group therapy.


Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR)

An exposure treatment in which clients move their eyes in a rhythmic manner from side to side while flooding their minds with images of objects and situations they ordinarily avoid.


Rap Groups

The initial term for group therapy sessions among veterans, in which members meet to talk about and explore problems in an atmosphere of mutual support.


Psychological Debriefing

A form of crisis intervention in which victims are helped to talk about their feelings and reactions to traumatic incidents. Done within days of the incident. May not be that effective and may cause victims to dwell too long on the trauma.
4-stage approach: normalize responses to the disaster, encourage expression of anxiety, anger, and frustration, teach self-help skills, and provide referrals.



Event that creates demands.


Stress Response

Person's reaction to the demands which are influenced by how we judge the event and our capacity to react effectively.


Dissociative Disorders

Disorders marked by major changes in memory that don't have clear physical causes. Feel dazed, have trouble remembering, and have a sense of derealization. One part of a person's memory/identity becomes dissociated/separated from other parts of their memory/identity.



The faculty for recalling past events and past learning. Helps us react and guides depression making.


Dissociative Amnesia

A disorder marked by an inability to recall important personal events and info, usually of a stressful nature, about their lives. Much more extensive than normal forgetting and not caused by physical factors like a traumatic event.


Localized Amnesia

Most common type of dissociative amnesia where a person loses all memory of events that took place within a limited time period.


Selective Amnesia

Second most common type of dissociative amnesia where people remember some, but not all, events that took place during a time period.


Generalized Amnesia

Forgetting events that occurred earlier in life including the stressful event.


Continuous Amnesia

Forgetting new and ongoing experiences as well as what happened before and during.


Amnestic Episode

The forgotten period.


Dissociative Fugue

A form of dissociative amnesia in which a person travels to a new location and may assume a new identity, simultaneously forgetting his/her past. Tends to end abruptly.


Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) / Multiple Personality Disorder

A dissociative disorder in which a person develops two or more distinct personalities. Most cases diagnosed until late adolescence or early adulthood but symptoms generally begin in childhood (age 5).


Subpersonalities / Alternate Personalities

The two or more distinct personalities found in individuals suffering with DID. Each with a unique set of memories, behaviors, thoughts, and emotions. One dominates at a time called a primary personality (appears more often than the others).


Mutually Amnesic Relationship

The subpersonalities have no awareness of one another.


Mutually Cognizant Patterns

Each subpersonality is well aware of the rest, hearing one another's voices and even talk among themselves.


One-Way Amnesic Relationships

Most common. Some personalities are aware of others, but the awareness is not mutual.


Conscious Subpersonalities

Those who are aware are quiet observers who watch the actions and thoughts of the other subpersonalities but don't interact with them. Can make itself known through indirect means such as auditory hallucinations or automatic writing.


The Psychodynamic Perspective for Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative disorders are caused by a lifetime of excessive repression (basic ego defense mechanism) which unconsciously prevents painful memories, thoughts, or impulses from reaching awareness. Dissociative amnesia is a single episode of massive repression, but DID is though to result from a lifetime of excessive repression. This continuous use of repression is motivated by childhood traumatic events.


The Behavioral Perspective for Dissociative Disorders

They believe that dissociation grows from normal memory processes such as drifting of the mind or forgetting. They hold that dissociation is a response learned through operant conditioning. They're reinforced for forgetting more anxiety things and learn that such acts help them escape anxiety. Like psychodynamic theorists, behaviorists see dissociation as escape behavior, but behaviorists believe that a reinforcement process rather than a hardworking unconscious is keeping the individuals unaware that they're dissociating to escape.


State-Dependent Learning

Learning that becomes associated with the conditions under which it occurred, so it's best remembered under the same conditions. A particular level of arousal will have a set of remembered events, skills, and thoughts attacked. When you remember the traumatic event that caused the subpersonality, you revert to that subpersonality.



The process of hypnotizing yourself, sometimes for the purpose of forgetting unpleasant events.


Hypnotic Amnesia

Hypnosis that can make people to get facts, events, and even their personal identities.


Treatments for Dissociative Dissorders

Psychodynamic therapy, hypnotic therapy, and drugs (barbiturates).


Hypnotherapy / Hypnotic Therapy

A treatment in which the patient undergoes hypnosis and is then guided to recall forgotten events or perform other therapeutic activities.



The final merging of two or more subpersonalities in DID.


Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

A dissociative disorder marked by the presence of persistent and recurrent episodes of depersonalization, derealization, or both. Doesn't involve memory issues.


Treatment for DID

Therapists help the clients (1) recognize fully the nature of their disorder, (2) recover the gaps in their memory, (3) integrate their subpersonalities into one functional one. Further therapy needed after fusion.



The sense that one's own mental functioning or body are unreal or detached.



The sense that one's surroundings are unreal or detached.


Double Depression

A condition where a person has persistent depressive disorder, have a depressed episode, and later have major depressive disorder.


Cognitive Triad

The three forms of negative thinking that Aaron Beck theorizes lead people to feel depressed. Negative beliefs of oneself, one's future, and one's experiences.


Attribution-Helplessness Theory

When people view events as events beyond their control, they ask themselves why this is so.



A low, sad state marked by significant levels of sadness, lack of energy, low self-worth, guilt, or related symptoms.



A state of episode of euphoria or frenzied activity in which people may have an exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking. Dramatic and inappropriate rises in mood.


Unipolar Depression

Depression without a history of mania.


Bipolar Depression

A disorder marked by alternating or intermixed periods of mania and depression.



An inability to experience any pleasure at all.


Major Depressive Disorder

A severe pattern of depression that is disabling and is not caused by such factors as drugs or a general medical condition. May be further categorized as seasonal, catatonic (marked by immobility or excessive activity), postpartum, or melancholic (unaffected by pleasure).


Persistent Depressive Disorder

A chronic form of unipolar depression marked by ongoing and repeated symptoms of either major or mild depression.


Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

A disorder marked by repeated episodes of significant depression and related symptoms during the week before menstruation.


Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

Characterized by a combination of persistent depressive symptoms and recurrent outbursts of severe temper.


Reactive (Exogenous) Depression

Depression caused by clear-cut stressful events.


Endogenous Depression

Depression seemed to be a response to internal factors.


The Biological Perspective for Unipolar Depression

Genetic factors - genetic studies suggest that some people inherit a biological predisposition to unipolar depression. Closer the relative, higher the chances. Severe depression seems to be more likely than mild depression to be caused by genetic factors. People with an abnormality of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) are more likely than others to display low serotonin activity in their brains and may in turn be more prone to depression.


Biochemical Factors for Unipolar Depression

Low activity of norepinephrine and serotonin has been strongly linked to unipolar depression. High blood pressure meds found to cause depression bc some lowered NE and some lowered serotonin activity. Research suggest that it's more complicated than lowering these NTs to cause unipolar depression. Some researchers believe that serotonin is actually a neuromodulator (a chemical whose primary function is to increase or decrease the activity of other key NTs, like NE).
Abnormally high cortisol and melatonin levels.
Believe activity by key NTs leads to deficiencies in BDNF.


Immune System

The body's network of activities and body cells that fight off bacteria, viruses, and other foreign invaders.


The Psychodynamic Perspective for Unipolar Depression

Link between depression and grief (constant weeping, loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping, loss of pleasure in life, and general withdrawal).



A directing of feeling for your loved ones onto yourself, like sadness and danger.


Oral Stage of Development

Period of total dependency to parents and cannot distinguish themselves from the parents. Depression results from oral stage issues.


Symbolic / Imagined Loss

According to Freudian theory, the loss of a valued object (Ex. loss of job) that is consciously interpreted as the loss of a loved one.


Anaclitic Depression

A patten of depressed behavior found among very young children that's caused by separation from one's mother.


The Behavioral Perspective for Unipolar Depression

Behaviorists believe that unipolar depression results from significant changes in the number of rewards and punishments people receive in their lives. Only modest research support.


The Cognitive Perspective for Unipolar Depression

Cognitive theorists believe that people with unipolar depression persistently view events in negative ways and that such perceptions lead to their disorder. The two most influential cognitive explanations are the theories of negative thinking and learned helplessness. According to Beck, maladaptive attitudes, cognitive triad, errors in thinking, and automatic thoughts combine to produce unipolar depression.


Automatic Thoughts

Numerous unpleasant thoughts that help to cause or maintain depression, anxiety, or other forms of psychological dysfunction.


The Sociocultural Perspective for Unipolar Depression

They believe that unipolar depression is strongly influenced by the social context that surrounds people. Evidence shows that depression is often triggered by outside stressors. Two views: family-social perspective - looks at the role played by interpersonal factors in development of depression and multicultural perspective - ties depression to factors, such as gender, race, and SES.


Artifact Theory

Women and men are equally prone to depression, but clinicians often fail to detect it in men.


Hormone Explanation

Hormone changes trigger depression in many women. Women have a lot of hormonal changes throughout their lives.


Life Stress Theory

Suggests that women in our society are subject to more stress than men because women face more poverty, menial jobs, less adequate housing, more responsibilities at home, etc.


Body Dissatisfaction Explanation

States that females in Western society are taught, almost from birth, to seek a low body weight and slender body shape, which are unreasonable, unhealthy, and almost always unattainable.


Lack-of-Control Theory

Women may be more prone to depression bc they feel less control than men over their lives.


Rumination Theory

Women are more likely than men to ruminate when their mood darkens, making them more vulnerable to depression.


Bipolar I Disorder

A type of BD marked by full manic and major depressive episodes. 3+ symptoms of mania lasting one week or more to be diagnosed.


Bipolar II Disorder

A type of BD marked by mildly manic (hypomanic) episodes and major depressive episodes.


Cyclothymic Disorder

A disorder marked by numerous periods of hypomanic and mild depressive symptoms for two or more years, interrupted by periods of normal mood.


Permissive Theory

A decrease in serotonin may open the door to a mood disorder and permit NE activity to define the particular form the disorder will take: low serotonin + low NE = depression or low serotonin + high NE = mania.


The Biological Perspective for Bipolar Disorder

NTs: Expected a link b/t NE levels and mania and a link b/t high serotonin and mania. Found some research support for the NE one, but not for the high serotonin one.
Ion Activity: Irregularities in the transport of Na+ and K+ ions may cause neurons to fire too easily (resulting in mania) or to stubbernly resist firing (resulting in depression).
Brain Structure: abnormalities seem in basal ganglia, cerebellum, decreased volumes of gray matter, dorsal raphe nucleus, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and PFC.


Behavioral Activation

Adding positive activities to a person's life.


Contingency Management Approach

Systematically ignoring a client's depressive behaviors while praising or otherwise rewarding constructive statements and behavior.


Beck's Cognitive Therapy

Therapy that helps people identify and change maladaptive assumptions and ways of thinking that help cause their psychological disorders. Phase 1: increasing activities and elevating mood, phase 2: challenging automatic thoughts, phase 3: identifying negative thoughts and biases, and phase 4: changing primary attitudes.


Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)

Treatment for unipolar depression that's based on 4 interpersonal problems that may lead to depression and need to be addressed: interpersonal loss, interpersonal role dispute, interpersonal role transition, and interpersonal deficits.


Integrative Behavioral Couples Therapy

Teaches specific communication and problem-solving skills to couples and further guide them to be more accepting of each other.


Dietary Supplements

Nonpharmaceutical and nonfood substances that people take to supplement their diets, often to help prevent or treat psychological or physical ailments.


MAO Inhibitor

An antidepressant drug that prevents the action of the enzyme MAO bc normally MAO breaks down NE so MAOIs block MAO from doing this, leading to a rise in NE and decrease in depression. Can't mix with foods that have tryamine (cheese, wine, and bananas) bc it'll lead to high bp.



An antidepressant drug that has three rings in its molecular structure. Reduces depression by blocking the reuptake process. Take 10 days to have an effect and relapse is high if you stop taking.


Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

A group of second-generation antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin activity without affecting other NTs. Also takes 10 days to have an effect.


Vagus Nerve Stimulation

A treatment procedure for depression in which an implanted pulse generator sends regular electrical signals to a person's vagus nerve and the nerve then stimulates the brain.


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

A treatment procedure for depression in which an electromagnetic coil sends a current into the brain non-invasively. Appears to increase neuron activity in PFC.


Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

A treatment procedure for depression in which a pacemaker powers electrodes that have been implanted in Brodmann Area 25 to reduce its activity and decrease depression.



A metallic element that occurs in nature as a mineral salt and is an effective treatment for bipolar disorders, especially those with mania. Have to determine the correct dosage.


Mood Stabilizing Drugs

Psychotropic drugs that help stabilize the moods of people suffering from BD. Helps more for mania than depressive episodes.